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The physical geography of Europe. Chapter 11, Section 1: The Land. Standards and Objectives. Standards: Create and use maps, technology, imagery, and other geographical representations to extrapolate and interpret geographic data.

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The physical geography of europe

The physical geography of Europe

Chapter 11, Section 1: The Land

Standards and objectives
Standards and Objectives


  • Create and use maps, technology, imagery, and other geographical representations to extrapolate and interpret geographic data.

  •  Engage in informed and respectful deliberation and discussion of issues, events, and ideas.

    Objectives: At the end of this section, students will be able to:

  • Define terms related to the physical geography of Europe.

  • Use maps of Europe to identify, locate and compare regions, locations, places, movements, and physical features

  • Compare and contrast the land areas of Russia and Europe by writing a five paragraph essay.

  • Research and discuss current issues/events related to physical features of Russia

Class work
Class Work

  • Page 229: Questions 1, 2, 3, and 4

  • Answers

    • fjord: long, steep-sided glacial valley now filled with water; polder: drained areas; peat: compacted vegetable matter composed of mosses

    • Interior, and along northern and southern edges

    • Peninsulas, irregular, islands, fjords

    • Iron and coal

Peninsulas and islands
Peninsulas and Islands

  • Scandinavian Peninsula

    • Norway: Last Ice Age glaciers scraped out huge areas along the coast that filled with water (fjords) and today make excellent, deep harbors

    • Sweden is the eastern half of the Scandinavian Peninsula

Peninsulas and islands1
Peninsulas and Islands

  • Jutland Peninsula

    • Denmark

      • Western coast of sandy beaches

      • Marshes in Southwest due to tides of North Sea

      • Eastern coast is rolling hills

Peninsulas and islands2
Peninsulas and Islands

  • The Iberian Peninsula

    • Spain and Portugal: large, semi-arid plateau

    • Plains along western and southern coasts;

    • Rugged Pyrenees Mountains run along border with France

Peninsulas and islands3
Peninsulas and Islands

  • Apennine Peninsula: Italy; Apennine Mountains run down center,

  • Northern part mostly plains; rugged coast with cliffs

Peninsulas and islands4
Peninsulas and Islands

  • Balkan Peninsula:

    • Made up of many countries

    • Bosporus and the Dardanelles Straits connect the Mediterranean with the Black Sea

    • Highly mountainous and subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity

Map work
Map Work

  • Locate the following places and label them on your map.

    • Scandinavian Peninsula, Norway, Sweden

    • Jutland, Denmark, North Sea, Baltic Sea

    • Apennine Peninsula, Apennine Mountains, Mt. Vesuvius, Italy, Mediterranean Sea

    • Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Turkey, Albania, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Hungary, Romania, Dardanelles Strait, Bosporus

Bell work vesuvius shorts
Bell Work: Vesuvius Shorts

Number a blank page 11 and write the questions and answers on it.

  • Near what Italian city is Mt. Vesuvius located?

  • When was it’s last eruption?

    Though the volcano's last

    eruption was in 1944, it still

    represents a great danger to the

    cities that surround it, especially

    the busy metropolis of Naples.

Bell work vesuvius shorts1
Bell Work: Vesuvius Shorts

3. What plate is sub ducting under Italy?

4. How is the magma formed?

Magma produced from the

melting African plate

creates the large, violently

explosive volcanoes of the

Italian Peninsula.

Bell work vesuvius shorts2
Bell Work: Vesuvius Shorts

5. How do we know the exact date and time of the eruption?

The 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius is why volcanologists use "Plinian" to describe large volcanic eruption clouds. Pliny the Younger, a Roman historian who witnessed the 79 AD eruption, wrote the oldest surviving description of the tall, tree-shaped cloud that rose above the volcano.

Peninsulas and islands5
Peninsulas and Islands

Video and Video Questions:

Pompeii: The Last Day

Primary source use page 11
Primary Source: Use page 11

Bell Work: Select five items from the quote below that match the film and be prepared to defend them.

"On 24 August, in the early afternoon, my mother drew [my uncle's] attention to a cloud of unusual size and appearance. its general appearance can be best expressed as being like an umbrella pine, for it rose to a great height on a sort of trunk and then split off into branches, I imagine because it was thrust upwards by the first blast and then left unsupported as the pressure subsided, or else it was borne down by its own weight so that it spread out and gradually dispersed. Sometimes it looked white, sometimes blotched and dirty, according to the amount of soil and ashes it carried with it."

Peninsulas and islands6
Peninsulas and Islands

  • Iceland: located near Arctic Circle in North Atlantic Ocean

  • on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, it has volcanoes, geysers, and hot springs next to glaciers

Peninsulas and islands7
Peninsulas and Islands

  • British Isles

    • Two islands: Great Britain and Ireland

    • Rugged coastlines with rocky cliffs

    • Great Britain is mountainous in the north and flatter in the south

    • Ireland has a mild, cool climate and is very green, so called the Emerald Isle

Peninsulas and islands8
Peninsulas and Islands

  • Mediterranean Islands

    • Islands off coast of Italy—Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta; rugged, mountainous with warm climates that attract tourism

    • Greek Islands are mainly hills and fertile valleys

      Locate the following places on your maps: Iceland, Great Britain, Ireland, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea

Peninsulas and islands9
Peninsulas and Islands

Video Clip:

How the Earth Was Made: Iceland

Peninsulas and islands10
Peninsulas and Islands

  • Complete questions 1-4 on page 225.

  • How does the Rhine River contribute to Germany’s economy?

  • What mountain chain extends through the Italian peninsula?

  • What body of water separates the United Kingdom from Denmark?

  • What city is the capital of Portugal?


Transport goods


North Sea


Mountains and plains
Mountains and Plains

  • The Pennine Range forms the backbone of the Great Britain; oldest rocks in world

  • The Scottish Highlands are rocky, barren and include low mountains and high plateaus

  • Scottish Highlands

Mountains and plains1
Mountains and Plains

  • Alpine Mountain system runs from the Alps to the Carpathians; the Alps are the largest, touching four countries—France, Switzerland, Italy, and Austria

Mountains and plains2
Mountains and Plains

  • Locate the following places on your map: Pennine Range, Scottish Highlands, Alps, Carpathians, English Channel

Mountains and plains3
Mountains and Plains

Europe is plains interrupted by Mountains

  • The North European Plain stretches from France to the Urals (gray)

  • Mostly rolling land with low hills and mountains

  • Netherlands reclaimed some of the land from the sea by pumping water; this land is referred to as polders

Mountains and plains4
Mountains and Plains

  • The Hungarian Basin is a treeless stretch of land known for horse racing and agriculture

Label the North European Plains and the Hungarian Basin on your map

Rivers and lakes
Rivers and Lakes

  • The Rhine River

    • Most important river in western Europe

    • Connects many industrial cities to the port of Rotterdam on North Sea

Rivers and lakes1
Rivers and Lakes

  • The Danube River

    • Most important waterway in eastern Europe

    • Carries millions of tons of cargo to the Black Sea

Rivers and lakes2
Rivers and Lakes

  • Lakes

    • Sweden and Finland are covered with lakes

    • Lake Geneva reflects the beauty of the Alps and lies on the border between France and Switzerland; half of the lake is controlled by France and half by the Swiss

Rivers and lakes3
Rivers and Lakes

  • Locate the Rhine River, the Danube River, and Lake Geneva on your map

    Danube River Cruise Tour—HD

Natural resources
Natural Resources

  • Europe has large amounts of iron and coal, which are requirements for an industrial society

    Discuss and answer the questions based on the maps.

Iron Ore

Coal, 2005

Natural resources1
Natural Resources

  • Other Mineral Resources

    • Many of Europe’s industrial and transportation centers developed around mineral deposits

    • Bauxite—ore used to make aluminum

    • Potash—used in fertilizer

    • Copper, lead, zinc,

      uranium, gold, silver

      Great Copper Mountain, Sweden

Natural resources2
Natural Resources

  • Other Energy Sources

    • In past times, many Europeans relied on the burning of peat for energy, but now they use oil, coal, gas, nuclear and hydroelectric

    • The world’s first tidal power plant started in France in the 1966

      Read the article on

      modern tidal power and

      answer the questions.

Natural resources3
Natural Resources

  • Article Questions and Answers

  • If the project costs 40 million Euros to build and will serve 4000 homes, how much per home will the project cost?

  • In what ways will this French project dwarf all others?

  • What are the advantages of tidal energy power over other reusable sources?

Capstone project
Capstone Project

  • Compare and contrast the lands of Europe with those of Russia

    • Write a five paragraph essay

    • The thesis should include any three of the following: mountains, plains, rivers, lakes, seas, natural resources

    • The three body paragraphs should include at least three facts about the Russian topic and three facts about the European topic

    • The concluding paragraph should sum up the essay