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STEM workshop Illuminating Life: What's New and Noteworthy in Luminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging. Pat O’Hara October 3, 2009. Emission of Light. YES. After heating?. NO. Incandescence. Luminescence. After excitation with sound?. After using mechanical forces?. YES. YES.

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stem workshop illuminating life what s new and noteworthy in luminescence spectroscopy and imaging

STEM workshopIlluminating Life: What's New and Noteworthy in Luminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging

Pat O’Hara

October 3, 2009

slide2

Emission of Light

YES

After heating?

NO

Incandescence

Luminescence

After excitation with sound?

After using mechanical forces?

YES

YES

Sonoluminescence

Triboluminescence

After excitation with light?

YES

NO

Immediately?

Inanimate?

NO

YES

YES

NO

fluorescence

phosphorescence

chemiluminescence

bioluminescence

what is fluorescence http micro magnet fsu edu primer
What is fluorescence?http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/

Fluorescence is the emission of a photon by an excited state molecule.

what s new in fluorescence
What’s new in fluorescence?
  • Fluorescence of gemstones used to detect fake diamonds
  • Fluorescence is key to spider sex in some species
  • Fireflies chemiluminescence
  • Deep Sea Bioluminescence-
  • Bananas that glow: Fluorescence of ripening fruit is key to cellular processes
fluorescence of plants
Fluorescence of Plants
  • Ultraviolet fluorescence of plants is detected by bees, who have photoreceptors in this region of the spectrum and can see what looks to us like landing patterns on the petals directed towards pollen
slide9

Emission of Light

YES

After heating?

NO

Incandescence

Luminescence

After excitation with sound?

After using mechanical forces?

YES

YES

Sonoluminescence

Triboluminescence

After excitation with light?

YES

NO

Immediately?

Inanimate?

NO

YES

YES

NO

fluorescence

phosphorescence

chemiluminescence

bioluminescence

what is chemiluminescence
What is chemiluminescence?
  • Chemical reaction results in an intermediate that is in an excited state.
  • Reaction goes to product after this intermediate releases a photon
  • Energy of the photon comes from chemical energy due to the difference in energy of reactants and products
slide11

What is Chemiluminescence?

Example 1: Chemistry of Lightsticks

Phenol + CO2 + Dye + Light

slide12

What is Chemiluminescence?

Example 2: Chemistry of the Luminol Reaction

Oxidants: Peroxide, bleach, hemoglobin

light

3-aminophthalhyrazide

Catalysts: sodium perborate, cupric chloride,

slide13

Emission of Light

YES

After heating?

NO

Incandescence

Luminescence

After excitation with sound?

After using mechanical forces?

YES

YES

Sonoluminescence

Triboluminescence

After excitation with light?

YES

NO

Immediately?

Inanimate?

NO

YES

YES

NO

fluorescence

phosphorescence

chemiluminescence

bioluminescence

slide15

What is Bioluminescence?

Chemistry of the Luciferase Reaction

  • In the dark cycle (quiescent) oxygen is consumed by mitochondria (green) and ATP and luciferin are stored up in peroxisomes.
  • In the flash cycle, (NO) is released, and prevents consumption of O2 by mitocondria. Instead, O2 diffuses to peroxisome and voila! A flash!!
slide16

What is Bioluminescence?

Chemistry of the Luciferase Reaction

The luciferase catalyzes the oxidation of luciferin

Resulting in light and an inactive "oxyluciferin"

luciferase
Luciferase
  • http://srv2.lycoming.edu/~newman/courses/bio43799/luciferase/index.html
  • luciferase
bioluminescence from surface water
Bioluminescence from surface water

Animal------Jellyfish near surface

Small algae called milky sea

bioluminescence from mid water range
Bioluminescence from mid-water range

Let’s see video clip……….

Mid-water … 500-2000 ft deep

light intensity decreases exponentially

250 ft 10% less than surface

500 ft 1% less than surface

Plants can not photosynthesize

Why do organisms emit this light?

1. defense against predators

2. camouflage

3. see things and find food

4. communicate

http://www.biolum.org/

giant squid caught in action in 2007
Giant Squid- caught in action in 2007
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6357005.stm
bioluminescence from deep sea jellies
Bioluminescence from deep sea jellies

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubIg-WtjUg0

slide22

Green Fluorescent Protein GFP

GFP is a small very fluorescent protein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish, Aequorea victoria. This protein glows or fluoresces green when it absorbs blue light emitted from another protein in the jellyfish, aqueorin.

http://www.bio.davidson.edu/courses/genomics/method/GFP.html

slide23

Fluorescent Bomb Throwing Marine Worm

“fast, agile swimmers with glistening, translucent bodies sprouting rows of bristles that work like paddles. When disturbed, they eject glowing, green blobs that probably serve as decoys to distract predators’”

http://www.bio.davidson.edu/courses/genomics/method/GFP.html

pat s picks
Pat’s Picks
  • Bizarre deep ocean sea creatures:
  • Deep sea luminescent animals:
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnStTpupI2s&mode=related&search
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=70c-g0j5Qcc
    • http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/david_gallo_shows_underwater_astonishments.html
  • UCSB links: http://www.lifesci.ucsb.edu/~biolum/organism/milkysea.html
your banana challenge
Your Banana Challenge
  • I’ve brought in two dozen bananas of various stages of ripeness, some common solvents, knives, jars, and a black light.
  • I’d like us to explore this phenomenon and put together some discovery lab questions that –with a black light and a ripe banana, might be useful to you in your lab.