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Later History of the Middle East/Government Unit 6. SSWG3 The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary North Africa/Southwest Asia. a. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on North Africa/Southwest Asia.

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later history of the middle east government unit 6

Later History of the Middle East/GovernmentUnit 6


The student will describe the interaction of physical and human systems that have shaped contemporary North Africa/Southwest Asia.

a. Describe the location of major physical features and their impact on North Africa/Southwest Asia.

c. Analyze the impact natural resources, especially oil, have on North Africa/Southwest Asia.

e. Explain the impact of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the development of the region’s culture.

g. Describe the major ethnic and cultural groups in North Africa/Southwest Asia; include major customs and traditions.


Ottoman Empire

  • Creation of Israel
  • Israel v. Muslim Countries
    • PLO & Hamas
  • Iran
  • Iraq
ottoman empire
Ottoman Empire
  • Began in the early 1300’s
  • Made up of Sunni Muslims
  • Sunni Muslims: choose religious leaders to lead prayer and interpret the Qur’an
    • Largest group of Islamic followers
  • Empire began to expanded into Southern Europe, Eastern Europe & North Africa
    • Ottomans acquired a new capital and port which allowed them to expand & spread Islam
ottoman empire continued
Ottoman Empire continued
  • Ottomans tolerant of Christians/Jews
    • Allowed religious freedom throughout their empire
  • 1700’s --- Ottoman Empire begins declining
  • Great Britain/France begin to take much territory from the Ottomans
    • Algeria --- France
    • Egypt --- Great Britain
  • Great Britain/France waiting for Ottomans to crumble
fall of ottoman empire
Fall of Ottoman Empire
  • World War I --- Ottomans side w/ Germany
  • Great Britain makes deal with Ottomans:
    • Create Arab homeland with religious freedom for all faiths
  • Great Britain secretly plans to divide empire with France
fall of ottoman empire continued
Fall of Ottoman Empire continued
  • Ottomans & Germany lose WWI
    • Ottomans forced to sign peace treaty

3 parts of peace treaty:

1. Arab state in Saudi Arabia & Yemen

2. France controls Syria & Lebanon

3. Great Britain gets Iraq, Jordan, & Palestine (Israel)

creation of israel
Creation of Israel
  • Zionist Movement (late 1800’s/early 1900’s)
    • Jews thought Palestine was the only home they knew & free from persecution
    • Great Britain controlled Palestine after WWI
    • British promised Muslims a homeland --- offered Muslims self determination
    • Self determination: right to decide political future
creation of israel continued
Creation of Israel continued
    • Balfour Declaration (1917): Stated G. Britain’s support for creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine w/out violating Muslim rights
  • Many Muslim nations (Jordan, Syria, Iraq) began to form independent nations after World War II
  • Sympathy arose for the Jews after news of their suffering emerged during WWII (Holocaust)
    • Jews from Europe began to migrate to Israel
creation of israel continued1
Creation of Israel continued
  • Tensions among the 3 groups (British, Muslims, Jews) turned violent
  • 1947 --- British w/drew from Palestine --- turned area over to the United Nations
  • UN Solution for Palestine:
    • Palestine --- divided into 2 states (one Muslim, one Jewish) (1)
    • Jerusalem would be international city sacred to Christians, Muslims, Jews (2)
creation of israel continued2
Creation of Israel continued
  • accepted UN plan, Muslims did not
      • Muslims said plan not fair since they had majority population
  • UN approved division of Palestine
  • 1948 --- creation of Israel
  • Almost immediately, Muslim countries attack
israel v muslim countries
Israel v. Muslim countries
  • Israel’s borders change within a 30 year period
    • 1948 War, 1967 Six Day War & the 1973 Yom Kippur War
    • Egypt, Jordan, Syria
  • Israel gains more land
    • West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula
  • Palestinian Muslims flee to areas/live in refugee camps
    • Sinai Peninsula will eventually go back to Egypt
  • Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • Formed in mid-1960’s to represent best interests of Palestinian Muslims
  • Said Muslims were only group that had rights to Palestine
  • Leader: Yasir Arafat (dies 2004)
  • 1980’s --- called for an intifada or uprising in Israeli occupied territories
    • terrorist attacks by PLO against Israel
  • Has control of West Bank
  • Official gov’t now called the Palestinian National Authority
  • Created in the 1980’s
  • Also responsible for terrorist attacks against Israel
  • Took control of Gaza Strip --- 2007
  • Imposed Islamic law
    • Legal system based on Islamic principles
  • Money for Hamas comes from countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran

4:12 min

  • Military group/political party in Lebanon
    • Founded in response to Israeli forces invading Lebanon in the early 1980’s
  • Led by Shi’a Muslims
  • Sophisticated attacks against Israel
  • Determined to drive Israeli troops out of Lebanon
  • Also claimed responsibility for 1983 killings of 200 U.S. Marines in Beirut, Lebanon
conflict continues
Conflict continues
  • Both Hamas and PLO have hatred for European countries and the U.S.

Hatred comes from:

1. Dishonesty of Great Britain after WWI

2. UN granting land to Israel

3. Foreign countries meddling in Middle East

4. U.S. military and financial support of Israel

  • Once ruled by a shah-ruler
  • 1970’s---Iranians wanted an Islamic theocracy
    • Theocracy: gov’t ruled through religion
  • shah did not truly represent the Islamic religion
  • 1979-people of Iran revolted
  • shah left Iran for United States
  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini set up new Islamic gov’t—became the Republic of Iran
changes made by ayatollah khomeini
Changes Made by Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Harsh punishments for anyone who spoke out against the gov’t (1)
  • Had to abide by Islamic dress code, especially women-had to be covered (2)
  • No Western influences (3)
    • Examples: No American movies/music/clothing/news
iran hostage crisis
Iran Hostage Crisis
  • Nov. 1979
  • Iranian university students took 66 people hostage @ U.S. embassy in Tehran
  • Hostages held 444 days
  • tried rescue attempt October 1980
    • Rescue attempt failed
    • killing 8 U.S. military men
      • some of the reason why Jimmy Carter not reelected
  • Hostages finally released Jan 1981
    • the day Ronald Reagan took oath of office
iraq vs iran
Iraq vs Iran
  • 1980-Iraq & Iran start the 8 Year War
  • Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein, fought Iran over a border dispute (Strait of Hormuz)
  • Iraq was supplied with weapons by the U.S.
  • Iran got weapons from the former communist Soviet Union
  • The U.S. also secretly sold weapons to Iran
  • War ended in a truce
hussein vs the u s
Hussein vs. the U.S.
  • Former leader---Saddam Hussein-came to power in 1979
  • 1990—Hussein attacks Kuwait b/c of its large oil supply
  • US comes to Kuwait’s aid---beginning of Desert Storm Conflict/First Gulf War
  • 1991-US liberates Kuwait from Iraq
    • Hussein remains in power
  • United Nations places embargo or severe restriction on trade w/ other countries on Iraq
hussein vs u s continued
Hussein vs U.S. continued
  • Embargo was to force Hussein to give up chemical/nuclear weapons
  • 2002---United Nations inspectors look for chemical weapons in Iraq
  • March 2003-US invades Iraq—beginning of 2nd War in the Gulf
  • Hussein captured in 2003, tried/executed in 2006