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Ancient Middle East Chap. 2 (Sec. 1,3,& 4) I. Fertile Crescent land bt. Tigris & Euphrates Rivers “ Twin Rivers ” Armenian Plateau A. Cross-Roads of the World ** 3 continents meet Asia Africa Europe. B. Mesopotamia * land bt. the rivers ( Greek)

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Ancient Middle East

Chap. 2 (Sec. 1,3,& 4)

I. Fertile Crescent

land bt.Tigris & Euphrates Rivers “Twin Rivers”

Armenian Plateau

A. Cross-Roads of the World

** 3 continents meet





B. Mesopotamia

*land bt. the rivers (Greek)

Birth of Civilization 5000 BC

C. Middle East Battleground


II. Sumerians5000 BC

  • *1st civ. In history
  • modern Iraq

A. City-State

  • *town & surrounding country side form gov.
  • mutual defense
  • irrigation
  • 12 Sumerian city-states

Ur“Moon City” *key city-state

Royal Tombs of Ur

Sir Leonard Wooley1927

wealth & human sacrifice

population ranged 20,000 - 250,000

own gods

*constant war over land & water


Sumerian Social Classes

1. Nobles

royalty & priests

2. Commoners

merchants, fishers,

farmers 90% of people,


3. Slaves


B. Religion

Theocracy *gov. run by priests

Kings gods rep.s on earth



  • temple of city god
  • 6 - 7 stories high
  • gods use Ziggurats ladders to heaven

*Gods control forces of nature

  • Anu Lord of Heaven
  • Nanna Moon God
  • Ea God of Waters
  • Enki God of the Earth
  • Enlil God of Air & Storms
  • Dumuzi King of City
  • Inanna Goddess of Fertility
  • Wicked Udugs Demon Gods

C. Cuneiform

use of wedge shaped objects

write on clay tablets

Sumerians invented writing 3100 BC

Scribes*public writers

Stylus*stick used to write


Gilgamesh Sumerian epic poem 1800 BC

  • oldest story in world??
  • exploits of king Gilgamesh
  • Great flood

Take and read out from the lapis lazuli tablethow Gilgamesh went through every hardship. Supreme over other kings, lordly in appearance,he is the hero, born of Uruk, the goring wild bull. He walks our in front, the leader,and walks at the rear, trusted by his companions.Mighty net, protector of his people,raging flood-wave who destroys even walls of stone!From the Epic of Gilgamesh, Book I


D. Sargon of Akkad 2340 - 2284 BC

King of Battles “34-0”

founded 1st empire in history

Persian Gulf to Med. Sea

Lord of 4 Quarters of World

Akkad northern city state


E. Sumerian Inventions:

  • schools
  • wheel
  • plow
  • arches
  • bricks
  • number system based on 60
  • seconds, 60 minute hour, 360 circle

III. Babylonia 2000 BC

ancient lower Tigris- Euphrates Valley

A. Babylon“Gate of God”

largest city-state in ancient world 200,000 people


B. Hammurabi 1792 BC

  • Code of Hammurabi
  • *1st code of laws 282 laws
  • Law of Retaliation
  • “ Eye for an eye, & tooth for a tooth.”
  • Shamash*God of Justice
  • Stele stone monument

Code of Hammuabi

If one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.

If any one bring accusation against a man, and the accused go to river and leap

Into the river, If he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house.

But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, he who had brought

Accusation shall be put to death.

If a free man has destroyed the eye of a member of the aristocracy, they shall

destroy his eye.

A wife who was a gadabout, neglecting her house humiliating her husand,

could be drowned.

If a son has struck his father, he shall cut off his hand.


C. Nebuchadnezzar“Mad Ox” 605 BC

leader of Chaldeans

defeated Assyrians

rebuilds Babylon


Hanging Gardens of Babylon

  • 7 Wonders of Ancient World
  • Amytis*Neb. Wife

Babylonian Captivity 586 BC – 538 BC

  • *captured Jerusalem & enslaved Jews

E. Astrology

  • stars & planet positions determine fate
  • divination foretell future
  • smoke patterns - internal organs

IV. Hittites 1550 BC

  • Warriors from Asia Minor (modern Turkey)

conquered Babylon


A. 1st to use iron weapons *Battle Ax

  • war chariots
  • B. Start of Iron Age 1500 BC – 600 BC
  • weapons & tools

V. Assyrians“Romans of Asia”

*worlds 1st military power 1200 BC

  • Assur
  • *city - state & chief god

B. Assyrian Empire “A land bathed in blood.”

  • Fertile Crescent & Egypt
  • destroyed Babylon 700 BC

C. Disciplined Army

  • *Cavalry
  • *Battering Rams - catapults
  • Mercenaries *professional soldiers
  • Roads & postal service

E. King Assurbanipal

  • Library of Nineveh *worlds 1st library
  • 22,000 clay tablets

VI. Persians 550 BC

*modern Iran

A. Cyrus the Great King of Persia

*set up Persian Empire


B. Darius 550 - 486 BC

  • divided empire into 20 Satapries(provinces)
  • Satrap*governors
  • Royal Inspectors “Eyes & Ears of the King”

C. Great Royal Road *Asia Minor to Susa

1677 miles long 111 relay stations 15 miles apart


D. Zoroaster *Persian Religion

  • world battleground Good v. Evil
  • Ahura Mazda god of goodness, wisdom, & truth
  • House of Song paradise

Ahriman - evil spirit

  • House of Worst Thought hell?

VII. Phoenicians “Sea Peoples”

A. Carriers of Civilization *greatest traders ancient world

modern Lebanon, Syria, & Israel


B. Carthage 814 BC

  • *N. African city
  • *dominated trade in Med. Sea

C. Purple*color of royalty

  • Murex - shellfish

D. Alphabet

  • model for western alphabet
  • 22 symbols

VIII. Lydians

A. King Croesus 560 BC

1st to use coins

face appeared on coins

“As rich as Croesus.”

B. Money Economy


IX. Hebrews

**Religious beliefs affect Western Civ.

A. Valley of Palestine 2000 BC

Abraham - founder of Hebrews


B. Yahweh God

  • Old Testament -sacred text

C. Moses & Exodus 1200 BC

  • *flight from Egypt
  • 10 Commandments

D. Kingdom of Israel 1025 BC

Solomon set up kingdom

*Jerusalem capital

King Solomon’s Temple*symbolic center of Hebrews

*housed Ark of the Covenant