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Ancient Middle East Chap. 2 (Sec. 1,3,& 4) I. Fertile Crescent land bt. Tigris & Euphrates Rivers “ Twin Rivers ” Armenian Plateau A. Cross-Roads of the World ** 3 continents meet Asia Africa Europe. B. Mesopotamia * land bt. the rivers ( Greek)
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Ancient Middle East Chap. 2 (Sec. 1,3,& 4) I. Fertile Crescent land bt.Tigris & Euphrates Rivers “Twin Rivers” Armenian Plateau A. Cross-Roads of the World ** 3 continents meet Asia Africa Europe
B. Mesopotamia *land bt. the rivers (Greek) Birth of Civilization 5000 BC C. Middle East Battleground
II. Sumerians5000 BC • *1st civ. In history • modern Iraq
A. City-State • *town & surrounding country side form gov. • mutual defense • irrigation • 12 Sumerian city-states
Ur“Moon City” *key city-state Royal Tombs of Ur Sir Leonard Wooley1927 wealth & human sacrifice population ranged 20,000 - 250,000 own gods *constant war over land & water
Sumerian Social Classes 1. Nobles royalty & priests 2. Commoners merchants, fishers, farmers 90% of people, craftspeople 3. Slaves
B. Religion Theocracy *gov. run by priests Kings gods rep.s on earth
Ziggurat • temple of city god • 6 - 7 stories high • gods use Ziggurats ladders to heaven
*Gods control forces of nature • Anu Lord of Heaven • Nanna Moon God • Ea God of Waters • Enki God of the Earth • Enlil God of Air & Storms • Dumuzi King of City • Inanna Goddess of Fertility • Wicked Udugs Demon Gods
C. Cuneiform use of wedge shaped objects write on clay tablets Sumerians invented writing 3100 BC Scribes*public writers Stylus*stick used to write
Eddubas schools to learn cuneiform • 600 signs
Gilgamesh Sumerian epic poem 1800 BC • oldest story in world?? • exploits of king Gilgamesh • Great flood
Take and read out from the lapis lazuli tablethow Gilgamesh went through every hardship. Supreme over other kings, lordly in appearance,he is the hero, born of Uruk, the goring wild bull. He walks our in front, the leader,and walks at the rear, trusted by his companions.Mighty net, protector of his people,raging flood-wave who destroys even walls of stone!From the Epic of Gilgamesh, Book I
D. Sargon of Akkad 2340 - 2284 BC King of Battles “34-0” founded 1st empire in history Persian Gulf to Med. Sea Lord of 4 Quarters of World Akkad northern city state
E. Sumerian Inventions: • schools • wheel • plow • arches • bricks • number system based on 60 • seconds, 60 minute hour, 360 circle
III. Babylonia 2000 BC ancient lower Tigris- Euphrates Valley A. Babylon“Gate of God” largest city-state in ancient world 200,000 people
B. Hammurabi 1792 BC • Code of Hammurabi • *1st code of laws 282 laws • Law of Retaliation • “ Eye for an eye, & tooth for a tooth.” • Shamash*God of Justice • Stele stone monument
Code of Hammuabi If one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. If any one bring accusation against a man, and the accused go to river and leap Into the river, If he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, he who had brought Accusation shall be put to death. If a free man has destroyed the eye of a member of the aristocracy, they shall destroy his eye. A wife who was a gadabout, neglecting her house humiliating her husand, could be drowned. If a son has struck his father, he shall cut off his hand.
C. Nebuchadnezzar“Mad Ox” 605 BC leader of Chaldeans defeated Assyrians rebuilds Babylon
Hanging Gardens of Babylon • 7 Wonders of Ancient World • Amytis*Neb. Wife
Babylonian Captivity 586 BC – 538 BC • *captured Jerusalem & enslaved Jews
E. Astrology • stars & planet positions determine fate • divination foretell future • smoke patterns - internal organs
IV. Hittites 1550 BC • Warriors from Asia Minor (modern Turkey) conquered Babylon
A. 1st to use iron weapons *Battle Ax • war chariots • B. Start of Iron Age 1500 BC – 600 BC • weapons & tools
V. Assyrians“Romans of Asia” *worlds 1st military power 1200 BC • Assur • *city - state & chief god