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… unprecedented scientific opportunities for observing the atomic-scale order, electronic structure and dynamics of individual nanostructures … Dean Miller, Argonne National Laboratory Yimei Zhu, Brookhaven National Laboratory Ivan Petrov, Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Lab, UIUC

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transmission electron aberration free microscope team project
… unprecedented scientific opportunities for observing the atomic-scale order, electronic structure and dynamics of individual nanostructures …

Dean Miller, Argonne National Laboratory

Yimei Zhu, Brookhaven National Laboratory

Ivan Petrov, Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Lab, UIUC

Ulrich Dahmen, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Ian M. Anderson, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Presentation to Office of Basic Energy Sciences

Germantown, MD – October 3, 2002

Transmission Electron Aberration-free Microscope (TEAM) Project
feynman anticipates physical basis for chemical behavior and role of electron microscope
Feynman anticipates physical basis for chemical behavior and role of electron microscope

“It would be very easy to make an analysis of any complicated chemical substance; all one would have to do would be to look at it and see where the atoms are. The only trouble is that the electron microscope is one hundred times too poor … I put this out as a challenge: Is there no way to make the electron microscope more powerful?”

– Richard P. Feynman, 1959,

“There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”

Atomic-scale imaging plays a unique role by defining quantum mechanical boundary conditions for the electronic structure calculations necessary to determine how nanostructures work

team extraordinary new scientific opportunities for direct observation of individual nanostructures
three-dimensional atomic-scale structure, shape, and defect distribution

spectroscopic identification and location of individual dopant atoms

direct imaging of the atomic-scale structure of glasses

electronic structure of individual point defects

non-spherical charge density and valence electron distribution

in-situ synthesis of novel nanoscale structures

e.g., electron-beam lithographic removal of individual columns of atoms

in-situ observation of the synthesis of individual nanostructures

in-situ observation of processing methods

e.g., thin film growth, oxidation, and deformation

in-situ scientific investigation of dynamic materials responses to variations in external thermodynamic variables

e.g., temperature, pressure, stress, chemical activity, and applied electric and magnetic fields

TEAM: extraordinary new scientific opportunities for direct observation of individual nanostructures

… all with unprecedented spatial, spectral & temporal resolution

why now a remarkable breakthrough has occurred in electron optics
Why now?A remarkable breakthrough has occurred in electron optics
  • Development of revolutionary aberration-correcting devices dramatically improves achievable numerical aperture in electron optical systems
  • This breakthrough removes the barrier that has limited the performance of the electron microscope since its invention
  • Simultaneous advances in stability of electronics, efficiencies of detectors, and speed of computers enable new opportunities for scientific investigation
what does aberration correction buy us
What does aberration correction buy us?

Higher probe intensity!

Smaller probes!

More signal!

Greater sensitivity!

Greater contrast!

team focus aberration correction also buys us space
TEAM focus:Aberration correction also buys us space!

Space for controlled specimen deformation!

  • Aberration correction allows lenses with order of magnitude longer focal lengths at same resolution

Space for 3D specimen rotation!

  • Modular approach to allow individual scientists to develop custom modules that address specific scientific questions
  • Flexibility in instrument design allows in-situ studies of dyna-mical processes

Space for in-situ synthesis & characterization

Microscope becomes a self-contained materials science lab!

modular sample holder configurations enable in situ measurements of materials behavior

Modular MEMS specimen holder

for in situ studies

(Initial designs can be employed in current generation microscopes.)

Electron

transparent

window

Transportable

specimen holder

MEMS specimen

Volume available for experimental tools

Feed-through

Electron

transparent

window

Wide-bodied

stage

Front-end of stage

DOE Basic Energy Sciences Microcharacterization User Centers, FS-MRL, ANL, BNL, LBL, ORNL

Modular sample holder configurations enable in-situ measurements of materials behavior
the team project a science based approach for the development of aberration correction
Unique, state-of-the-art instruments designed to achieve the full potential of aberration-correcting optics

Hybrid instruments operating or on order today interface an aberration correcting device to an earlier generation microscope

Instruments tailored to in-situ scientific investigation of materials behavior at the nanoscale

Instruments designed in collaboration with non-microscopist scientists to address specific classes of scientific problems

Unique instrumentation and supporting expertise broadly available to general scientific community

Impact of investments maximized through location of instruments within outward looking user centers

The TEAM project: a science-based approach for the development of aberration correction
status of team project
First TEAM Workshop held following 2000 Stringer BESAC Panel Review endorsement of TEAM “vision document”

Scientific Advisory Committee established

C.B. Carter, U Minnesota; J.A. Eades, Lehigh U; J. Silcox, Cornell U; J.C.H..Spence, Arizona State U; R. Tromp, IBM

Second TEAM Workshop, July 18-19, 2002 at LBNL, comprised 115 participants from 47 institutions

Strong participation from microscopy and general science communities, with strong expressions of support for project

Both TEM and STEM approaches to aberration correction under commercial development

Second generation TEM & STEM aberration correctors designed

TEAM Advisory Committee recommends BES EBMCs develop full proposal to fund TEAM

Status of TEAM Project
broad based team workshop participation 18 universities 13 companies 7 national labs 8 foreign doe
Broad-based TEAM Workshop participation:18 universities, 13 companies, 7 national labs, 8 foreign & DOE

Stanford University @ Massachusetts Institute of Technology @ University of Illinois - Urbana Champaign @ Lehigh University @ Arizona State University @ University of Illinois - Chicago @ Case Western University @ North Carolina State University @ Vanderbilt University @ Northwestern University @ UC Davis @ University of Washington @ UC Santa Cruz @ UC Berkeley @ Oregon State University @ University of Minnesota @ AMD @ University of Pittsburgh @ Dupont @ Lumileds @ Gatan @ PNNL @ Hitachi @ IBM @ JEOL @ Lucent @ MMFX @ FEI @ LBNL @ LLNL @ ORNL @ BNL @ Intel @ Nion @ PGI @ ANL @ SNL @ Simon Fraser University @ Chalmers University @ National Tsing Hua University @ Regensburg University @ Monash University @ University of Orsay @ CEOS @ DOE@@

team 2002 workshop scientific challenges identified
TEAM 2002 Workshop:Scientific challenges identified
  • Nanomaterials – Dresselhaus, MIT
    • Synthesis, properties, assembly: electronic structure
  • Semiconductors – Eaglesham, Lucent
    • The end of the roadmap in Si technology: multiple nanoscale issues
  • Magnetic materials – Siegmann, ETH
    • Fundamental understanding + utilization of magnetic nanostructures
  • Photonic materials – Craford, Lumileds
    • GaN will revolutionize the lighting industry: dopants, point defects
  • Computational materials science – Diaz de la Rubia, LLNL
    • Convergence of theory and experiment: validate theory
  • Catalysis – Gai, Dupont
    • Energy, environment, transportation: controlled chemical processes

Aberration correction will create fundamentally new opportunities!

slide13

Opportunity for BESLocating TEAM at existing EBMCs maximizes scientific impact

  • Well established user programs with missions that are aligned with BES science goals
  • Proximity to nation’s BES-sponsored synchrotron light and neutron sources
  • Closely coordinated with BES-funded Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs)
  • Necessary infrastructure to support unique capability
    • broad scientific base, advanced scientific computing, technical support, etc.
  • Strong record of instrumentation, technique development
  • Extraordinary level of coordination among EBMCs in the development of electron beam microcharacterization user centers in general, and the TEAM initiative in particular
the tem as a materials science laboratory atomic scale synthesis and characterization
The TEM as a materials science laboratory: atomic-scale synthesis and characterization

New science enabled by TEAM:

Paradigm shift

from 2D to 3D

UHV-TEM

Current state-of-the-art:

  • Direct 3D atomic-scale imaging of the synthesis of nanostructure in a controlled environment

LEEM

STM

  • 3D self-assembly controlled by surface segregation
    • In-situ chemical probes
  • In-situ measurements of behavior of individual nanostructures
new science through in situ multi probe measurements
New science through in-situ multi-probe measurements

CNT

  • STM/AFM
  • Four-point probes
  • Indentation
  • Magnetic/
  • electric probes

e-

TEM

STM

STM

Doped nano-peapods; Yazdani, Science, 2002.

science of catalysts 3d atomic scale morphology composition and chemical state
Science of catalysts: 3D atomic-scale morphology, composition, and chemical state

Current state-of-the-art:

At right, fuel cell Cu/ZnO catalyst particles changing shape in response to gaseous environment; Hansen et al., Science 295, 2055 (2002).

New science enabled by TEAM:

Model system for redox catalysis:

Oxidation of CO by Pt on titania

Key Scientific Questions:

  • How does 3D morphology of catalyst particle and its wetting to oxide support vary with T, {pi}, i = O2, CO, CO2, etc.?
  • How is oxygen transported to particles to effect redox reaction (e.g., CO to CO2)?
  • What is physical extent of chemically reduced area of substrate in vicinity of active metal particle?
science of semiconductors 3d atomic scale elemental distribution and nanoscale structure
Science of semiconductors: 3D atomic-scale elemental distribution and nanoscale structure

Current state-of-the-art:

New science enabled by TEAM:

Local 3D elemental distribution through:

  • Atomic resolution TEM & STEM tomography
  • Single atom sensitivity in STEM across most of periodic table

Local nanoscale structure through:

  • Nanocrystallography

P.M. Voyles, D.A. Muller et al., Nature 416, 826 (2002)

Local elemental distribution key to developing GaN for solid state

lighting; N, O distribution, amorphous material key for Si gate oxide

science of superconductors simultaneous imaging of structural defects magnetic fields
Science of superconductors: simultaneous imaging of structural defects, magnetic fields

Current state-of-the-art:

New science enabled by TEAM:

  • Location of vortices relative to “pinning” structural defects via simultaneous high resolution and magnetic imaging
  • Magnetic structure in vortex core
  • Proximity effects at interfaces (e.g., magnetic superconducting)

Methods

  • Phase reconstruction (Coene, Thust): defocus series enable long exp.times
  • Cs-corrected Lorentz TEM
  • Electron Holography
  • Lorentz STEM (0.1 nm dedicated)

Lorentz micrograph of chain-lattice

state of vortices in Bi-2212 film

SCIENCE 294, 5549, 2136 (2001)

  • Resolution limit of 2 nm insufficient for simultaneous imaging of structural defects
science of nanoscale functional materials non spherical charge density electron orbitals spin

B

B

H=170 Oe

H=300 Oe

Science of nanoscale functional materials: non-spherical charge density, electron orbitals & spin

Current state-of-the-art:

New science enabled by TEAM:

  • Non-spherical charge density & electron orbitals via quantitative small-angle electron scattering
  • Structure, bonding in aperiodic and amorphous materials
  • Scientific understanding of spin dynamics & switching behavior of magnetic nano-arrays

Methods

  • Development of ultra-fast (104 frames/s) solid-state detector
  • Position-sensitive, coherent interferometric diffraction for 5D structure (3r + 2q)
  • Real-time phase retrieval for in-situ mapping of electro- & magneto-static potential, field

Valence electron distribution in MgB2. Left: 2D line

contour;

Right: 3D map

0 Oe

35 Oe

Local magnetization & induction distribution of magnetic Co arrays

conclusion team will enable scientific discovery that can t otherwise be achieved
Science-based approach for the development of aberration correcting electron optics

Unique in providing 3D atomic-scale structure and dynamics of individual nanostructures

From 2D to 3D; from atomic columns to atoms ; from static to dynamic

TEAM concept transforms electron microscope from imaging instrument into self-contained materials science laboratory

Individual scientists able to develop experimental modules that interface with unique TEAM microscopes to address specific scientific questions

New opportunities for materials discovery through combined atomic-scale characterization and in-situ synthesis

Direct observation of nanoscale synthesis at atomic resolution

Feynman’s Holy Grail: unique role by defining the quantum mechanical boundary conditions for the electronic structure calculations necessary to determine how nanostructures work

Conclusion: TEAM will enable scientific discovery that can’t otherwise be achieved