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The Six Kingdoms. Section 17.2. How do we determine evolutionary relationships?. 1. Look for structural similarities. 2. Look at breeding behavior. 3. Look at geographic distribution and find where organism are located and their range.

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the six kingdoms

The Six Kingdoms

Section 17.2

how do we determine evolutionary relationships
How do we determine evolutionary relationships?
  • 1. Look for structural similarities.
  • 2. Look at breeding behavior.
  • 3. Look at geographic distribution and find where organism are located and their range.
  • 4. Look at Chromosomes for similar structure and number.
  • 5. Look at biochemistry: Look for similar DNA sequences and therefore similar proteins
phylogenetic classification
Phylogenetic Classification
  • Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a species.
  • Phylogenetic classification is a classification system that shows the evolutionary history of a species.
  • Cladistics: It is assumed that a group of organisms diverged and evolved from a common ancestral group.
  • Derived traits: Characteristics of the original group that are retained.
slide4
Cladogram: a branching diagram using cladistics.
  • Image taken from:http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article//evo_03
the six kingdoms1
The Six Kingdoms
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria: Bacteria that live in extreme environments void of oxygen. Cell membrane lipids, RNA, and cell wall structures are different than other bacteria.
  • Kingdom Eubacteria: all other bacteria. Strong cell walls and less complicated genetic makeup. Live in many habitats
  • Kingdom Protista: Eukaryote that lacks complex organ systems and lives in moist environments. Can be unicellular or multicellular
the six kingdoms continued
The Six Kingdoms Continued
  • Kingdom Fungi: Heterotrophs that do not move from place to place. Uni or multicellular eukaryotes that absorb nutrients from organic material.
  • Kingdom Plantae: Multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. Can not move from place to place. Cells organized into tissues, tissues organized into organs.
  • Kingdom Animalia: Animals: multicellular heterotrophs. Able to move from place to place. No cell walls. Cells form tissues that form organs that form organ systems.