Geography & Technology Geography of Canada
Geography & Technology • Geographic Information Systems • Global Positioning System • Aerial Photographs • Satellite Imagery
Geographic Information Systems • Geographic Information Systems *(GIS) is a technology that manages, analyzes, and disseminates geographic knowledge. Essentially, GIS is maps on computers. Each characteristic of the Earth’s surface is mapped on a layer which can be viewed independently, or in combination with other layers. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1QCazbIngM
Geographic Information Systems • GIS can analyze data in many ways:
Attribute Information: What is it? Location Information: Where is it? Species: Oak Height: 15m Age: 75 Yrs 51°N, 112°W GIS – Locations and Attributes Source: ESRI Canada, WhatsGIS.ppt
Attribute Questions: What provinces have more than 1.5 million people? Spatial Questions: What provinces border Saskatchewan? GIS – Asking Questions • GIS software can answer questions about our world: Source: ESRI Canada, What’s GIS.ppt
GIS – Why Use It? Support for decision-making based on spatial data: • Visual representation of data • Maintenance, manipulation of data • Analyze information and the affected area(s) geographically • Produce customized cartographic products
GIS – Real World Uses • Management • Agriculture • Public Utilities • Health Care • Emergency 911 • Real Estate • Marketing
GIS – Real World Uses • Is it safe to dig here? A proposed excavation, identified by address, is compared to pipelines in the area using Geotechnology. Source: ESRI Canada, What’s GIS.ppt
Global Positioning System • The GPS (Global Positioning System) is a "constellation" of 24 well-spaced satellites that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location. • The location accuracy is anywhere from 100 to 10 metres for most equipment. • Accuracy can be pinpointed to within one metre with special military-approved equipment.
Global Positioning System • GPS equipment is widely used in science and has now become sufficiently low-cost so that almost anyone can own a GPS receiver. • The GPS is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense but is available for general use around the world.
Global Positioning System • A hand-held GPS unit
Global Positioning System • An in-dash GPS unit
Global Positioning System • SPOT Satellite Messenger • Allows you to “check in”, send a message, or send emergency help from anywhere in the world • Uses GPS technology
Remote Sensing • *Remote sensing is the practice of studying Earth by using images and photographs taken from above Earth’s surface. * • These photographs are either taken by airplanes or by satellites. • http://goo.gl/hVtFh
Aerial Photographs • Using the photographs of the Earth taken by airplanes, you can see the world in 3D using a stereoscope.
Aerial Photographs • Google Earth is a computer program (that you can download for free!) that shows aerial photographs in a digital format, with a general purpose map on top. www.earth.google.com
Making Connections • Using your textbook, answer the questions on the worksheet about GIS and remote sensing • Start on page 51 Map for Qu #7