Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion. Motivation. Dynamics of behavior that initiate, sustain, direct, and terminate actions What makes us start, persist, focus on, and stop what we do?. Types of Motives.
FIGURE 9.11 (a) The general relationship between arousal and efficiency can be described by an inverted U curve. The optimal level of arousal or motivation is higher for a simple task (b) than for a complex task (c).
FIGURE 9.14 Maslow believed that lower needs in the hierarchy are dominant. Basic needs must be satisfied before growth motives are fully expressed. Desires for selfactualization are reflected in various metaneeds (see text).
FIGURE 9.15 Primary and mixed emotions. In Robert Plutchik’s model, there are eight primary emotions, as listed in the inner areas. Adjacent emotions may combine to give the emotions listed around the perimeter. Mixtures involving more widely separated emotions are also possible. For example, fear plus anticipation produces anxiety.
After the stimulus eliciting the sympathetic response is removed, that response is reduced, and the opposing parasympathetic response is enhanced. This is why people sometimes feel faint at the end of an exciting experience.
The polygraph, a method for detecting nervous arousal, is the basis for the so-called “lie detector” test. The polygraph operator (a) asks a series of nonthreatening questions to establish base-line readings of the subject’s autonomic responses (b), then asks questions relevant to an investigation. The underlying assumption is that an increase in arousal indicates nervousness, which in turn indicates lying. Unfortunately, a large percentage of innocent people become nervous and therefore appear to be lying.
According to the James-Lange theory, physiological arousal determines the nature of an emotion. According to Schachter and Singer’s theory, physiological arousal determines the intensity of an emotion, but not which emotion is experienced.
FIGURE 9.21 Theories of emotion.
FIGURE 9.23 A contemporary model of emotion.