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ColorMetrix User Group 2004. Keynote presentation by Howard Nelson Ed.D ColorMetrix 4th Annual User Group Meeting August 8-10, 2004 • Las Vegas, Nevada. Print Measurement as Historical Eras. Decades in which projects were initiated (and perhaps continue to evolve)

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colormetrix user group 2004
ColorMetrixUser Group2004

Keynote presentation by Howard Nelson Ed.D

ColorMetrix 4th Annual User Group Meeting

August 8-10, 2004 • Las Vegas, Nevada

print measurement as historical eras
Print Measurement as Historical Eras
  • Decades in which projects were initiated (and perhaps continue to evolve)
  • Provides us with an overview of where we came from, so we might be able to predict where technology will take us next
50 years of print quality verification
50 Years of Print Quality Verification
  • Measurement of printing through print characteristics
  • Print consistency control
  • Print quality control
  • Began researching lithographic technology during WW II for the US War Department
  • Began to research and consult for private industry after the War
  • Became GATF in the 1960’s
historically speaking
Historically Speaking
  • The 1950’s were the research era
    • Introduction of the scientific approach to problem-solving
    • LTF began to publish their findings in the “popular trade-press”
    • First densitometers became available
  • 1960’s were the developmental era
    • Web offset printing grabbed the market-share for most impressions
    • Densitometers became widely used
    • GATF pioneered print characteristic identification and calculation
  • 1970’s were the standardization era
    • SNAP - 1970 - 1972
    • SWOP - 1976 - 1980
    • Color proofing systems introduced
    • Print measurement investigates ink/paper/chemistry relationships
  • 1980’s were a consolidation era
    • CEPS systems improve halftone control
    • Color proofing systems improved
    • First Spectrophotometers available
    • Print measurement data feeds back to improve prepress accuracy
  • 1990’s were the era of verification
    • No-proof editorial
    • Spectrophotometers become generally available
    • ColorMetrix Technology LLC
    • Press “Fingerprinting” for process control
press fingerprinting
Press Fingerprinting
  • Five rules of Press Fingerprinting
    • Simulate production
    • Choose a test form
    • Run the form
    • Measure the sheets and collect data
    • Feedback to prepress
  • A step beyond??
print control measurements
Print Control Measurements
  • Solid Ink Density
  • Dot Area Gain (at the 50% dot value)
  • Print Contrast
  • % Trap (for Wet Ink Trap)
  • 3/C Neutral Gray Balance
  • Hue Error and Grayness Error
solid ink density
Solid Ink Density
  • Makeready aimpoint for color approval
  • Print consistency target
  • Basis reading for other calculations
  • One of the main image contrast indicators
dot area gain
Dot Area Gain
  • Image contrast indicator
print contrast
Print Contrast
  • How well the press/ink/paper combination is able to render shadow detail by differentiating between shadow area tone values
wet ink trap
Wet Ink Trap
  • Control of secondary (RGB) colors
verification fingerprinting
Verification Fingerprinting
  • Monitoring “Sheet Contrast”
    • At a given Solid Ink Coverage, print contrast characteristics shouldn’t vary
      • C=1.30, M=1.40, Y=1.05, K=1.60
      • DG=20%, PC=40%, Trap
  • Fingerprinting to verify press components are functional
press component life
Press Component Life
  • Like aircraft component parts, press parts are rated for useful life
    • Plates & blankets by # of impressions
    • Rollers by # of operating hours
    • Even cylinder bearers are rated TBOoR components
verification fingerprinting1
Verification Fingerprinting
  • Run test form under “Press New” conditions
  • Discover and monitor TBOoR for press parts
  • Re-run test form to verify need for replacement
  • Watch sheet contrast for clues
scanable press test form
Scanable Press Test Form
  • The scanable press

test form

scanable form components
Scanable Form Components
  • Two-tier standard color bar
  • Scanable color bar
scanable form components1
Scanable Form Components
  • Scanable ICC color profile
scanable form components2
Scanable Form Components
  • Scanable Tone Ramps
scanable form components3
Scanable Form Components
  • Scanable Gray

Balance Ramps

scanable form components4
Scanable Form Components
  • Scanable Total Ink Coverage Ramps
  • Collects and displays graphic data
  • Displays Run with VOC tolerances
  • Process Trending
  • Color hexagon
  • Press fingerprinting
  • Data sharing with other programs
historically speaking1
Historically Speaking
  • 2000 - 2010 may be the era of SPC
    • Use of statistics to identify problems
    • Use of statistics to monitor runs
    • Using statistics to predict outcomes
six sigma data analysis
Six Sigma Data Analysis
  • Specifies the amount of variation experienced compared to the specs
  • Greater process predictability Lowers costs by minimizing waste and rework
  • Isolates special cause variation from common cause variation
descriptive statistics
Descriptive Statistics
  • Mean
    • The average of the data as collected
  • Standard Deviation
    • The value of one sigma
run chart
Run Chart
  • Note the value of each individual point
  • Observe trends during the run
    • Runs up and down vs expected runs
  • Observe the P-Value
    • P-Value for Clustering, P < .05 = Special Cause
    • P-Value for Mixtures, P > .95 = Special Cause
i mr chart
I-MR Chart
  • Individual Value of each data point of the run
    • Mean, UNPL, LNPL
  • Moving Range of the differences in value during the run
    • Average range, UNPL, LNPL
process capability analysis
Process Capability Analysis
  • The Cp index
    • Ratio of the spec limits to the width of the process
    • Cp = 2 means the process is stable
    • Cp ≤ 1 means the process is unstable
  • The Cpk index
    • Ratio of the process width to the spec width including centering of the spec on the process
    • Cpk > 1 means the process is capable of meeting spec
    • Cpk = 1 or less means the process is incapable of meeting spec
some words of thanks
Some Words of Thanks
  • Colormetrix Technologies LLC
    • Jim Raffel, Mike Litcher, Mike Woods
  • E. I. DuPont de Nemours
  • GATF / PIA and Gretag-MacBeth
  • Flint Ink Corp.
    • Jeff Gilbert, Craig Stone