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Multiple Uses of Domestic Water Systems. John Butterworth IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre Winrock discussion forum on ‘ Policies and Management for Multiple Uses of Water ’ 26 April 2006. We should focus on meeting minimum needs and quality to improve health… some for all

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Multiple uses of domestic water systems l.jpg

Multiple Uses of Domestic Water Systems

John Butterworth

IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

Winrock discussion forum on

‘Policies and Management for Multiple Uses of Water’

26 April 2006


Background l.jpg

We should focus on meeting minimum needs and quality to improve health…some for all

Productive uses overload domestic water systems… should be banned

Potable water is too valuable for gardening… should be conserved

Beneficiaries of productive activities are the rich… lack of equity

Background


Alternative approach l.jpg

Productive uses as a vital contribution to poor people’s livelihoods… wider benefits of domestic water

Water quantity is often the highest priority… respond to demands

Potable water often not supplied, and incremental costs may be affordable… examine costs and benefits

Productive uses can be designed for…plan

Alternative approach



Prodwat group l.jpg

Coordinating partners livelihoods…

Johannesburg conference 2003

Think tank/ action research/ advocacy and information

www.prodwat.watsan.net

PRODWAT group


Bushbuckridge south africa l.jpg

Study by NGO AWARD livelihoods…

13 villages:

7 villages where water is collected from distance

6 villages with reliable water, mostly from yard taps

Productive use in all 13

Basic water use 21-22 lpcd with no sig. difference

Extra water consumed for productive uses

23 lpcd in worse villages

40 lpcd in better villages

Bushbuckridge, South Africa


Bushbuckridge south africa7 l.jpg
Bushbuckridge, South Africa livelihoods…

  • Vegetable gardens, fruit trees, building; brewing, livestock

  • Income from productive uses was substantial in these poor villages

    • averaged $34 per person per year in the ‘worse’ villages

    • averaged $62 per person per year in the ‘better’ villages


Cochabamba bolivia l.jpg

Study by Agua Tuya and Centro-AGUA ( livelihoods… www.musproject.net)

Community managed peri-urban water systems

Challacaba

Cochabamba, Bolivia


A virtuous cycle l.jpg

1 livelihoods…

4

2

3

A virtuous cycle

Users have access to water

at low cost and appropriate

quantity and quality

The service is improved

reinforcing the needs of

users

Users utilise water for

productive activities and

Improve their economic

situation

Users improve their

capacity and willingness

to pay for the service


Cochabamba bolivia10 l.jpg

Water is affordable, less than half the cost of municipal supplies

Piped water is available to households 24 hours a day and 7 days a week

The supply is potable

Households consume 65 lpcd… increases to 86 lpcd for households with animals

Cochabamba, Bolivia

Users have access to water

at low cost and appropriate

quantity and quality

1


Cochabamba bolivia11 l.jpg

44% of users have animals (incl. cows, pigs, sheep and poultry)

69% of these households have cows, and there is a good market for milk

cost of water for 7 cows averages US$ 35

generateing an avg. income per family of US$ 1900

Cochabamba, Bolivia

Users utilise water for productive activities and improve their economic situation

Users improve their

capacity and willingness

to pay for the service

2

3


Cochabamba bolivia12 l.jpg

Number of households connected has increased from 36 to 60 poultry)

System has been upgraded with 100% investment by the community

From a well with hand pump to metered household connections

A second well is planned to increase supply for productive uses especially gardens

The association is able to make loans to members

Cochabamba, Bolivia

The service is improved

reinforcing the needs of

users

4


Cochabamba bolivia13 l.jpg

Users have access to water poultry)

at low cost and appropriate

quantity and quality

1

The service is improved

reinforcing the needs of

users

4

2

Users utilise water for

productive activities and

Improve their economic

situation

Ownership of the system: empowerment

Appropriate technology and support

Appropriate financial models

Users improve their

capacity and willingness

to pay for the service

3

Cochabamba, Bolivia

Key ingredients


Zimbabwe l.jpg

NGOs like PumpAid are encouraging better access to groundwater

Government support for rural water supply under strain: coverage up but access down

Rope and washer pumps are cheap and easy to maintain

Zimbabwe


Pumpaid zimbabwe l.jpg
PumpAid Zimbabwe groundwater


Conclusions l.jpg

People draw multiple benefits from access to small-scale water supplies

can add up to an appreciable impact on livelihoods and poverty

Conclusions


Conclusions17 l.jpg

narrow approaches to water supply that neglect the potential of productive uses are an opportunity missed

lead to system failure

lack of cost recovery

Conclusions


Conclusions18 l.jpg

projects fail to address these needs because small-scale productive uses slip between sub-sectoral remits

bottom-up, people-centred, and multi-sectoral planning processes tend to facilitate

Conclusions


Conclusions19 l.jpg

Low and inflexible norms-based ‘basic needs’ or rights-based approaches can be a handicap

norms of 50-200 lpcd depending on setting are needed to provide sufficient water for productive uses

Conclusions


Conclusions20 l.jpg

many positive examples are now emerging rights-based approaches can be a handicap

increase in recognition, across water sub-sectors, for holistic approaches to meeting people’s water needs at household level

some convergence between sectors

offers practical support to implementing IWRM

Conclusions


More information l.jpg

www.prodwat.watsan.net rights-based approaches can be a handicap

Newsletter

Book: beyond domestic

Thematic overview paper: water and livelihoods

Next meeting: UK 12-13 June 2006

More information


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