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Multiple Uses of Water and Health. Eline Boelee. Relevant health issues. Water quality Water availability: quantity & accessibility Hygiene behavior Vector-borne diseases Other issues Incorporation in planning and design. Winrock meeting 26Apr06. Water quality. Different requirements

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Relevant health issues l.jpg
Relevant health issues

  • Water quality

  • Water availability: quantity & accessibility

  • Hygiene behavior

  • Vector-borne diseases

  • Other issues

  • Incorporation in planning and design

Winrock meeting 26Apr06


Water quality l.jpg
Water quality

  • Different requirements

    • Irrigation

    • (human) consumption

    • other uses (e.g. laundry, animals)

  • Chemical / biological water quality – trade offs

  • Perceptions

  • Treatment


Chemical water quality l.jpg
Chemical water quality

  • Arsenic

  • Fluoride

  • Salinity

  • Iron (taste)

  • Often geological origin

  • Occasionally agro-chemicals or industrial

  • Sometimes treatment possible


Biological water quality l.jpg
Biological water quality

  • Main cause of diarrhea

  • Bacteria, viruses, parasites

  • Sources of contamination

    • lack of sanitation

    • upstream activities

    • transport & in-house contamination

  • Often preventable

  • Water treatment effective

  • Opportunity

    • Ecosan, wastewater irrigation

    • Closing nutrient cycle


Example biological water quality legedini l.jpg
Example: biological water quality Legedini

WHO norm for drinking water

bacteria

parasites

0.6% of children positive for Giardia (n=326)


Treatment options l.jpg
Treatment options

  • Central treatment

    • Expensive if quantities increase

    • No guarantee for safe consumption

  • Point of use treatment

    • Availability of options

    • Training for safe use

    • Sustainable?

  • Component approach

    • Lowest quality required as starting point

    • Not more expensive if planned for

    • Treatment of community storage


Water availability l.jpg
Water availability

  • Quantity: 15, 50, or 100 lpcd?

  • In dry areas: using available water wisely

  • Demand vs supply-driven

  • Accessibility to all, near house, for large part of day/night → time gain (women & children!!)

  • Condition (but not sufficient) for improved hygiene

  • More water for (other) productive purposes

  • Seepage from unlined canals & reservoirs: impact on availability and quality of water for drinking


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Increase access

  • Domestic-plus systems

    • Increased pipe diameter

    • Cattle troughs

    • Right of use

  • Productive-plus

    • Steps, laundry sites

    • Cattle crossings

    • Water rights

  • Multipurpose

    • All users and uses, including landless, women, poor

    • Users’ priorities!

    • Multiple sources for multiple uses

    • Incremental services over time




Multipurpose l.jpg
Multipurpose

Adidaero, Tigray, Ethiopia


Also in dry areas l.jpg
Also in dry areas

For many farmers, livestock has first priority!


Vector borne diseases l.jpg
Vector-borne diseases

  • Guinea worm (filtration)

  • Schistosomiasis

    • Case detection and treatment

    • Separate facilities for washing and bathing

    • Sanitation and environmental snail control

  • Malaria and other mosquito-transmitted diseases (dengue, yellow fever, filariasis)

    • Early detection & treatment

    • Personal protection: bed nets

    • Source reduction

      • Larviciding not compatible with several water uses

      • Filling & draining

      • Biological control


Other issues l.jpg
Other issues

  • Nutrition

  • Drowning

  • Zoonoses

  • Changes in labor requirements (women and children)

  • Perceptions of changes in human health

  • Conflicts over water

  • Increased income

  • Environmental hazards


Health issues in planning design l.jpg
Health issues in planning & design

  • Sufficient quantities for all purposes

  • Clean water for drinking

    • Reduction of upstream pollution

    • Innovative approach to treatment

  • Sanitation and hygiene education

  • Prevention of vector breeding

  • Participation & perceptions