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incorporation of multiple uses into new irrigation systems case study ethiopia
Incorporation of multiple uses into new (irrigation) systems:Case study Ethiopia

Catholic Relief Services and their partners have implemented several multipurpose water systems in East and Northern Ethiopia. Some started as domestic systems (e.g. Burak in the East - left example), while some were from the start designed to deliver multiple use water services (e.g. Adidaero in the North – right).

Photo: Michiko Ebato

Photo: Michiko Ebato

Photo: Michiko Ebato

Photo: Pauline Scheelbeek

Photo: Eline Boelee

Nursery

Cattle trough

Irrigated field

Laundry basin

Cattle trough

Photo: Eline Boelee

Photo: Michiko Ebato

Irrigated fields

Photo: Michiko Ebato

Photo: Michiko Ebato

Domestic water point

Irrigation canal

Water point (left) and laundry basin (right)

Irrigation diversion structure

Photo: Eline Boelee

Filtration gallery

Spring protection box and reservoir

Photo: Michiko Ebato

Photo: Eline Boelee

Ethiopia

Diversion dam

slide2

Incorporation of multiple uses into new irrigation systems:Case study Ethiopia (based on MUS project, see notes)

Draft

  • Designed for multiple uses with focus on irrigation
  • In most of rural Ethiopia, no adequate drinking water supply is available
  • People use water from all sources for livestock, drinking, irrigation, and other domestic and productive purposes
  • Water interventions by NGOs integrate various uses according to the potential of the water resources, e.g.
    • Springs are protected by spring boxes and the high quality water stored in a clean reservoir, with connections to taps, cattle troughs, laundry and washing sites; overflow from the reservoirs is used for irrigation
    • Water from diversion dams is led into irrigation canals and horizontal filtration gallery and the potable water stored; overflow goes to laundry basin and cattle trough.
    • Boreholes with high yields are equipped with extra pumps to make more water available for gardens.
  • A learning alliance on multiple use of water in eastern Ethiopia has led to changed investments – now this district will invest in multipurpose water systems only
  • Issues
  • Water quality variable: from very low at surface water sources to high at boreholes
  • Water stored and consumed at household level very low quality
  • High prevalence of intestinal water-related parasites (e.g. Cryptosporidium, Giardia)
  • Access to water systems not always clearly arranged, sometimes aggravation of conflicts
  • Low access to markets, both for agricultural inputs (e.g. agrochemicals) and for selling products

Ethiopia

slide3

Incorporation of multiple uses into new irrigation systems:Case study Ethiopia

Draft

  • Service levels
  • Though these are almost fully-fledged multiple use water services and the irrigation-plus typology does not really apply, probably L1 classifies these systems best because most facilities are communal.
  • Could move up the service ladder by
    • Introduction of home water treatment for drinking water
    • Individual connections and provisions
    • Agricultural and veterinary extension
    • Improved access to input and output markets
  • Costs
  • Infrastructure in Ethiopia is more expensive than in other countries, so combined infrastructure saves money
  • Good participatory approach to include all agencies and assess actual range of water needs is time consuming and leads to high overheads
  • Much of rural Ethiopia is chronically food-insecure and depends (at least for several months of the year) on food aid. Access to water for irrigation would help to reduce food insecurity but it will take years and much additional (information, infrastructure, education) support before people can get an income. Cost recovery in Ethiopia is an illusion in the short term.
  • Benefits
  • Improved health
  • Increased food security
  • Increased livestock productivity
  • Increased opportunities for income generation
  • Reduced work load and drudgery, especially for children

Ethiopia