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Hardware - Inside the Box

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  1. Hardware - Inside the Box • Question: What is the central brain, inside the box, through which all information goes?

  2. Office Hours • Dr. Urquhart • Monday 11:10-12 • Tuesday 2-4 pm • Wednesday 11:10-12 • TAs • Ben Ellis: Monday 6-8 • Andy Speirs: Tuesday 6:45-8:45 • Kash Siddiqui: Wednesday 7-9 • Ben Ellis: Thursday 5:45-7:45

  3. Announcements • READINGS on Website under RESOURCES • Overview of how Microprocessors are made • Summary of current INTEL Lineup • AMD Processors • BOLD are required

  4. Today’s Information • Microprocessors • Motherboards • Buses, Slots, and Ports • Storage

  5. Metric System • Kilo = • Mega = • Giga = • Tera = • These terms are used frequently to describe storage and speed in computers

  6. Metric System • Kilo = 1000 • Mega = 1,000,000 = 1 million • Giga = 1,000,000,000 = 1 billion • Tera = 1,000,000,000,000 = 1 trillion • These terms are used frequently to describe storage and speed in computers

  7. Bits & Bytes • 1 Byte = 8 bits = 8 1s or 0s in any combination • 10100011 • 1 KB = Kilobyte = 1024 Bytes (210) • 1 MB = Megabyte = 1024 Kilobytes = 220 Bytes • 1 GB = Gigabyte =1024 Megabytes = 230 Bytes (1073741824 Bytes)

  8. Millions vs. Binary • 1 KB = Kilobyte = 1024 Bytes (210) • 1 MB = Megabyte = 1024 Kilobytes = 220 Bytes • 1 GB = Gigabyte =1024 Megabytes = 230 Bytes (1,073,741,824 Bytes) • Hard drive companies: 1 GB = 109 Bytes • 1,000,000,000 • 1073741824/1000000000 = 1.073 • 7% shortchange on hard drive capacity

  9. Bytes and MP3s • If each song is 3 MB, how many songs can you put on a 120 GB hard drive? • Use 1,000,000,000 for your GB size • Use 1,000,000 for your MB size • *If you have a calculator, try again using 1,000,000,000 for GB and 220 for MB

  10. Bytes and MP3s • If each song is 3 MB, how many songs can you put on a 120 GB hard drive? • There are either 1024 MB/GB or 1000 MB/GB • 120 GB x 1024 MB per GB/3 MB=40,960 • 120 x 1000/3 = 40,000 • Difference = 960 songs

  11. Computer Speed • Hz = Hertz = Cycles/second = once per second • MHz = Megahertz = Million cycles/second • GHz = Gigahertz = Billion cycles/second • Typical processor today runs at 2 GHz! • That’s 2 Billion times a second it can cycle information!

  12. Taking a Test • Would you rather have a faster brain or one with more stuff stored in it when you take a test?

  13. Two things determine function • Processor Speed • This is the speed at which information is processed • RAM (Random Access Memory) • This is how much information is available for rapid processing

  14. 8088 Evolution of Intel Microprocessorsand Pursuit by AMD Processors 80286 80386 AMD 386 80486 AMD 486 Pentium AMD K5 Pentium Pro AMD K6 Pentium II AMD K6-II Pentium III AMD K6-III Celeron (Castrated Pentiums) Pentium IV Duron Athlon

  15. Left off here

  16. Evolution of the Intel Microprocessor

  17. AMD – Advanced Micro Devices • Second largest microprocessor manufacturer • Always following Intel in development • For a while leapt ahead of Intel with early Athlon

  18. Pentium IV and 0.13 u transisors • Micron is Micrometer, μm, 10-6 m • 1/1000th of one milimeter! • Current Pentium IV transistor is 0.13 microns (eight fit in one micron) • Next generation 0.09 microns (90 nanometers)--NANOTECHNOLOGY

  19. Size of a Dinner Plate120 billion transistors!

  20. Important Microprocessor Qualities • Speed, e.g. 2.5 GHz (Gigahertz) • Dr. U’s Ranking • AMD Athlon XP • Pentium IV • Celeron • Pentium M? • Athlon 64? • Pentium V?

  21. Athlon vs. Pentium • AMD released Athlon in August, 1999 • First time ever that Intel was not producer of fastest x86 chip • Athlon XP now 3200+ (~3.2 GHz)*** • Athlon 64 now 3400+ • Intel Pentium IV 3.4 GHz

  22. Athlon XP Processors • Benchmark Performance • Benchmark is a task to test performance • Large image processing task or data crunching • PERFORMANCE RATINGS** • XP 3200+ is a 2.2 GHz processor, equivalent to Pentium IV 3.2 GHz in performance

  23. Benchmark Test

  24. Doubling of Processor Speed • Manufacturers always coming out with faster processors • It takes about 2 years the fastest processors to double in speed • 1996 – 233 MHz • 1998 – 450 MHz • 2000 – 1.4 GHz (cost $600 in 2000, $100 today) • 2002 – 3.06 GHz • 2003 – 3.4 GHz • Take Home Message: Don’t buy the top of the line processor, it will be dated very quickly!

  25. Memory - RAM • RAM is Random Access Memory • Short Term, erased frequently • RAM is memory that is “alive,” constantly changing • RAM stores program info and data • it’s what the processor communicates with to determine how to display the program and file

  26. Types of RAM • DDR Ram is Double Data Rate, for Athlon and Pentium IV • SDRAM – Used in a lot of machines, but being phased out • Adding new RAM is the cheapest and easiest way to make your computer run faster

  27. Adding new RAM • Must match type to existing memory • Pull out chip and go to store to match • DDR PC2100, DDR PC 2700, PC 133, etc • DIMM 184 Pin for desktop • SODIMM for laptops • Can have one 128 MB and one 512 MB (or any other combo) as long as the sam etype

  28. Choosing a RAM Chip

  29. RAM Prices • RAM $100 a Megabyte in 1990 – Typical computer had 1 MB of RAM • $1 a MB in 1999 • $2 a MB in late 1999? • $0.60 a MB last year • $0.15 a MB now (256 MB < $40) – Typical computer has 256 MB of RAM

  30. Analogy • If the processor is the brain of the computer, then what is the motherboard? • The Spinal Cord • Processor and Motherboard make up Central Nervous System

  31. Motherboards • Circuitry that connects all items to the processor • Card slots for modems, sound cards, graphics cards • Socket or slot for processor • Bus speed determines processors • Good ones have Intel Chipset

  32. Motherboards and Microprocessors • Motherboard must have appropriate socket or slot for processor • Motherboard must support processor’s speed and have the same bus speed

  33. Two-way Communication: Modem • MOdulator / DEModualter = MO-DEM • Converts digital computer signal to analog telephone signal and vice versa • Sends and receives information • 56K is current standard • Connect speeds often slower than 56K

  34. Cable Modems • Cable Modems convert from cable interface to Ethernet or USB interface. • External, $50-$200 to buy • Must subscribe to Broadband/ Cable Internet Service through your cable provider • Best way to go from home but expensive ($45/month) • Cable provider has a monopoly so prices won’t drop

  35. Storage Media • Media refers to the objects on which information is stored • Singular of word is medium • A CD is a medium for storage, a floppy disk is a medium, …

  36. Storage: Magnetic • “Drive” Storage: magnetic film stores 1s and 0s • Hard Drives - Internal, sealed platters • Floppy Drive - One flexible platter • Zip Drive – Very high capacity floppy • Most rewritable storage is magnetic

  37. Storage: Optical Read Only • CD-ROM – 650MB or 700 MB, read only, etched pits • drives 32X etc. for speed relative to normal • DVD - stands for Digital Versatile Disc, 4.7 Gb (7X CD)

  38. CD Burners – Optical Read/Write • CD RW • 32x/8x/40x means 32x maximum write speed, 8x max. rewrite speed, and 40x max. read speed • Media: CD-R is cheapest, write once • CD-RW – good medium for transporting files