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Re-cap yesterday’s mosque debate What was the debate about? What were the two sides of the debate? What is Islam?. Islam. Emergence of Islam Teachings of Islam Achievements in the Muslim World. The Muslim World. Arabian Peninsula (Southwestern Asia)

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islam

Re-cap yesterday’s mosque debate

    • What was the debate about?
    • What were the two sides of the debate?
  • What is Islam?
Islam
the muslim world

Emergence of Islam

Teachings of Islam

Achievements in the Muslim World

The Muslim World
emergence of islam geography1

What do you see?

Sandstorms

Mostly desert

People settle mostly

at or near an oasis

Emergence of Islam: Geography
emergence of islam muhammad

Muhammad

    • Born in 570 B.C.E. in Mecca (site of Hajj today)
    • At about 40 years old, begins to experience visions
    • Becomes the prophet of Islam

Message:

    • “Recite!” “One True God”

Allah

EMERGENCE OF ISLAM: Muhammad
emergence of islam hijra

Not everyone listened to Muhammad

  • Mecca at this time was a commercial center
    • Merchants live off of people coming to pray to the traditional gods and idols
      • Why do you think merchants would have a problem with Muhammad’s teachings?
  • Faced with threats of murder, Muhammad and followers leave Mecca for Yathrib
    • This journey is known as the hijra
Emergence of Islam: hijra
teachings of islam monotheism

Arabian Peninsula at this time

    • Clan-based society
    • Worship Gods and idols
  • Monotheism
    • Very new to area
    • Threatened society
Teachings of Islam: monotheism
teachings of islam quran

The Quran

    • Sacred word of God (through Muhammad)
    • In Arabic, it is the direct and un-

changeable word of God

    • All followers learn Arabic
      • How do you think this has helped

unite Muslims from different places?

  • Ethical teachings
    • Honesty, generosity, social justice
    • Complete guide to living a good life
    • Final authority on all matters
Teachings of Islam: QURAN
teachings of islam people of the book

Monotheism was not new to everyone

    • Judaism and Christianity = the People of the Book
Teachings of Islam: people of the book
  • Shared beliefs:
    • One God
    • Adam and Eve
    • Abraham
    • Word of God
  • Differences:
  • Torah and Bible only
  • partial revelation
  • God has no son
  • Muhammad taught tolerance
    • In general, People of the Book enjoy religious freedom
teachings five pillars of faith

Five pillars of Islam are the foundation of Muslim faith

    • Just as video showed, not all Muslims know all 5

1. Shahadah (The Testimony of Faith)

    • What is a testimony? What does it mean to testify in court?
    • “la ilahailla Allah, Muhammadunrasoolu Allah.”
      • These are the only words you have to say with conviction to become Muslim
    • There is no God besides Allah
    • None has the right to be worshipped besides him
    • God has no partner
    • God has no son
Teachings: Five Pillars of Faith
teachings five pillars of faith1

2. Salah (Prayer)

  • Pray five times a day
  • As many as you can – some more, some less
  • This brings a direct link between the worshipper and Allah.

3. Zakat (Charity)

  • Give as much as you can
  • Give of yourself through good deeds
Teachings: Five Pillars of Faith
teachings five pillars of faith2

4. Saum (Fasting)

  • During the month of Ramadan all Muslims fast from sunrise until sunset abstaining from food and drink

5. Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)

  • Travel to Mecca at one time in your life if you can
Teachings: five pillars of faith
achievement

Trade

Art and Humanities

Literature and Writing

Mathematics

Music

Science and Medicine

Achievement
achievement trade

Trade was an integral part of the Muslim world

    • Merchants were honored
      • Muhammad was a merchant
    • Trade Spreads products and technology
    • Manufacturing
      • Artisans produce wealth of fine goods
  • Guess what?! Trade = Peace and Prosperity =

Innovation

Achievement: Trade
achievement trade1

Trade expands

    • Camel caravans “ships of the desert”
    • Travel the Silk Road
Achievement: trade
achievement art

Many works of art are rich in history

and beauty

Interwoven with beautiful stories

One Thousand Arabian Nights

Late one night I was suddenly awakened by a rustling noise outside my window. Through a space in the blinds, I saw a large rectangular carpet hovering above the willow tree. I opened the window, and the carpet …

What does this remind you of?

Achievement: art
achievement science and medicine

Astronomy

    • Navigation
  • Pharmacology
  • Anatomy
  • Medical Practices
Achievement: Science and medicine
achievement literature and writing

Arabic

    • Importance to faith
  • Poetry
  • Calligraphy
  • Largest library of time-Baghdad
    • Knowledge
Achievement: Literature and writing
achievement math

Arabic Numerals

Pioneered the study of algebra

Geometry is vital to Muslim

culture

Achievement: MATH
achievement music

New instruments

Dancing

Important for prayer services

Songs tell tales and religious teachings

ACHIEVEMENT: MUSIC
your mission

Museum Exhibit

  • Achievements in the Muslim World
  • Pick 1 category you are interested in
  • Sign up TODAY
  • Research tomorrow and Friday
  • DUE Tuesday, November 30th
    • Tuesday after Thanksgiving Break
YOUR MISSION!
your mission1

Museum Exhibit

  • Requirements:
    • One artifact from the Muslim world
    • One paragraph describing the what, where, when, who, how and WHY
      • WHY question is most important (and is your reflection):
        • Why was your artifact important in history?
        • Why is your artifact important in our world today?
  • Museum Exhibit Day Wednesday, December 1
YOUR MISSION!
your mission2

Museum Exhibit

  • Achievements in the Muslim World
  • Pick 1 category you are interested in
  • Sign up TODAY
  • Research tomorrow and Friday
  • DUE Tuesday, November 30th
    • Tuesday after Thanksgiving Break
YOUR MISSION!
today

5 minute warm-up quiz

Questions and answers about the spread of Islam

Sunni-Shi’a Divide

Reminder: Museum Exhibits DUE TOMORROW

Reminder: Exam and Study Guide THURSDAY

Today
5 minute warm up quiz

Where was Muhammad born?

a. Medina

b. Oasis

c. Mecca

d. Yathrib

5 Minute warm-up quiz
5 minute warm up quiz1

Which of the following is NOTa message that Muhammad preached to his followers?

a. Treat each other well.

b. You will be judged by God in the next life.

c. There is only one God.

d. The poor should be ignored.

5 Minute warm-up quiz
5 minute warm up quiz2

All of the following are reasons that Muhammad was seen as a threat to the stability of society in Mecca EXCEPT:

a. His message was embraced by the wealthy.

b. His followers were those with little to lose: the poor, enslaved and women.

c. His belief in one God threatened those who profited from the worship of idols.

d. His teachings encouraged equality for all.

5 Minute warm-up quiz
islam questions and answers

What happened after Muhammad?

How did the Islamic empire spread?

What were the impacts of the spread?

What is the basis for the Sunni-Shiite divide?

Islam: Questions and Answers
islam after muhammad

What happened after Muhammad?

Muhammad had united Arab tribes

Many worried that Islam would

disappear without him

Islam after Muhammad
islam after muhammad1

What happened after Muhammad?

  • Abu Bakr
    • Early follower of Muhammad
    • Early convert to Islam
    • Becomes the first caliph
    • “If you worship Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. If you worship God, God is alive.”
    • Reunites Arab tribes based on allegiance to religion
  • Spread of Islam into the Islamic empire
Islam after Muhammad
islam empire3

How did the Islamic empire spread?

    • Spread happens very quickly…but WHY?
      • Some welcomed as liberators
        • Generally, non-Muslims allowed to practice own faith
          • Taxation on non-Muslims
      • Fighting methods
      • Common faith
        • Message of faith is attractive
        • Five Pillars
        • Language
        • Promise of paradise for falling in battle or jihad
Islam: empire
impacts of the islamic empire

What were the impacts of the spread?

    • Political
      • Sharia Law
      • Division into Sunni, Shiite, Sufi
    • Social
      • Women – confirmed their spiritual equality
      • Veiling and seclusion – based on

Persian and Byzantine traditions

of upper-class women

        • Hijab and Niqab
Impacts of the Islamic empire
impacts of the islamic empire1

What were the impacts of the spread?

    • Economic
      • Trade
      • Baghdad’s splendor
      • AbbasidGolden Age
    • Religion
      • Adopted by many when Christianity is becoming very powerful
      • Jerusalem and Constantinople
Impacts of the Islamic empire
islam the sunni shiite divide

What is the basis for the Sunni-Shiite divide?

    • Muhammad dies without leaving a successor
    • Sunni beliefs:
      • Caliph should be chosen by Muslim leaders
      • Caliph is not a religious authority
    • Shi’a/Shiite beliefs:
      • Only true successors are descendents of Muhammad’s daughter and son-in-law Fatima and Ali
      • Divine inspiration of descendants
Islam: The Sunni-Shiite Divide
islam the sunni shiite divide1

What does the divide mean today?

    • 80%-90% of Muslims are Sunni
    • Issues of minority and majority in the Middle East
    • Violence
    • Political unrest
    • Example: Iraq
Islam: The Sunni-Shiite Divide
islam the sunni shiite divide2
ISLAM: THE SUNNI-SHIITE DIVIDE

Is peace possible for these groups? What are their similarities and differences?