the elections of 1885 and 1886 and the first home rule bill n.
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THE ELECTIONS OF 1885 AND 1886 AND THE FIRST HOME RULE BILL. Parnell and the National League. Parnell now the ‘uncrowned king’. No opposition at home. 1882 he replaced the Land League with the ‘National League’. Its aims in order of importance were: 1. Home Rule 2. Land Reform

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parnell and the national league
Parnell and the National League
  • Parnell now the ‘uncrowned king’. No opposition at home.
  • 1882 he replaced the Land League with the ‘National League’. Its aims in order of importance were:
  • 1. Home Rule
  • 2. Land Reform
  • 3. local government. reform
  • Method was to get MPs elected.
parnell and the national league1
Parnell and the National League
  • Parnell was in England most of the time (With Kitty O’Shea) and left the running of the National League to Timothy Harrington, William O Brien and Timothy Healy.
  • By 1885 it was a powerful party.
  • To win support, priests were asked to get involved. This alienated Protestants (home rule = Rome rule)
what league branches did
What League Branches did.
  • • Collected money to pay election expenses
  • • Organised elections
  • • Chose candidates and imposed the party pledge (disciplined party)
  • 1884 Reform Act
  • Gladstone gave vote to any man who rented property (200000 to 700000)
parnell negotiating with the british parties
Parnell Negotiating with the British Parties
  • Parnell adopted Butts policy of ‘independent opposition’= offer to vote for whichever party promised HR.
  • He was vague about what HR meant to strengthen his negotiating position
parnell and the liberals
Parnell and the Liberals
  • Under the Kilmainham treaty, coercion was to have ended but the Phoenix Park murders delayed that. Relationships strained.
  • Chamberlain’s ‘Central Board Scheme’ proposed County councils should be set up and together with Irish MPs should run Ireland’s internal affairs.
  • William O’Shea sounded Parnell out but did not make it clear to Chamberlain that Parnell had rejected it.
  • Chamberlain embarrassed. Things got worse.
parnell and the conservatives
Parnell and the Conservatives
  • Led by Salisbury the Conservatives saw the discord between HR party and the Liberals.
  • June 1885 Gladstone and Liberals resigned after losing a vote to Tories + HR party. Because of the 1884 Reform act, constituencies were being redrawn so Salisbury was allowed have a caretaker government until a general election could be held in November but he had to reward Parnell:

• Stop coercion

•Ashbourne Land Act (£ purchase)

  • Unionists very upset that Parnell was dealing with both parties.
the 1885 election case study part 1
The 1885 Election (Case Study, part 1)
  • Parnell decided to side with the Conservatives because:
  • • Gladstone refused to bargain
  • • Leading conservatives Sir Randolph Churchill and Lord Carnarvon (Lord Lieutenant) hinted at support for HR. Salisbury would not meet Parnell.
  • • If the Tories backed HR, it would pass the House of Lords.
the results of the november 1885
The Results of the November 1885
  • A triumph for The Irish National League and Parnell who won 85 of the 103 seats and one in Liverpool.
  • In Britain, the Liberals defeated the Conservatives by 86 seats.
  • So Parnell could not get Salisbury back in but Gladstone still needed Parnell’s votes to become PM.
the first home rule bill case study part 2
The First Home Rule Bill (Case Study, part 2)
  • The Hawarden Kite
  • Herbert (son) let slip to journalists that Gladstone was to bring in a HR bill.
  • Salisbury rejected Home Rule and changed the parties name to the Conservative and Unionist Party.
  • Randolph Churchill changed and said that to stop HR ‘the Orange Card was the one to play’.
  • Parnell’s bargaining position was gone.
unionist reaction
Unionist Reaction
  • Anglican and Presbyterian landlord and tenants united in their opposition.
  • The sectarian Orange Order was revived. Orange halls were built. Demonstrations and marches were held.
  • Ulster Conservatives and Liberals set up the ‘Ulster Loyalist Anti-Repeal Union’. Isabella Tod set up the ‘Liberal Women’s Unionist Association’
  • 1886 Edward Saunderson set up the Unionist Party.
april 1886 the first home rule bill
April 1886 The First Home Rule Bill
  • All Gladstone’s work.
  • Terms:
  • • Irish parliament to deal with all Irish affairs except matters relating to the Crown, war, trade, navigation, coinage, post and foreign affairs.
  • • Ireland would pay one fifteenth of the Imperial budget.
  • Gladstone also proposed a land purchase bill so that tenants could buy out their land. This, he hoped would avoid conflict between unionist landlords and Catholics in a HR situation but he did not understand the depth of anti-HR feeling in Northern Ireland
the parliamentary debate
The Parliamentary Debate
  • Arguments for Home Rule:
  • • Irish people wanted it and not a watered down version (central board scheme)
  • • It would end violence and coercion and bad relations with the Empire
  • • Parnell would not allow discrimination
  • • It would free up the British parliament

Arguments against:

• Proper local government would sort out Irelands problems

• It would lead to demand for full independence and break up the Empire

• Irish not fit to rule

• Discrimination

liberals divided
Liberals Divided
  • Chamberlain upset.
  • Many ‘Liberal Unionists’
  • It was Gladstone’s baby and many liberals supported it only out of loyalty to him
8 june 1886 home rule defeated
8 June 1886 Home Rule Defeated
  • 341 to 311. 93 Liberals had voted against.
  • Gladstone called a general election……
  • The 1886 Election (Case Study, part 3)
  • As Ireland was a forgone conclusion, the campaigning went on in Britain.
  • Home Rule was the only issue and it was easily defeated.
  • Gladstone resigned and Salisbury became PM.
  • The Results of 1885-1886

• For the first time Partition was an issue

• Liberals now committed to Home Rule

• Parnell lost freedom to manoeuvre

• The Unionist Party set up

parnell s final years
Parnell’s Final Years
  • After the defeat of the 1886 Home Rule Bill, Parnell spent most of his time in Britain convincing British voters that HR for Ireland was a good idea.
  • The Plan of Campaign, organised by T Harrington, W O Brien and J Dillon attracted journalists to Ireland who reported on the terrible conditions.
  • This helped change British minds. Parnell stopped it, afraid it might lead to violence.
the pigott forgeries
The Pigott Forgeries
  • Dublin journalist Richard Pigott.
  • The Times (Conservative) published ‘Parnellism and Crime’
  • Conservative government set up a commission of enquiry.
  • Pigott’s confession and suicide in Madrid.
  • High point of Parnell’s Popularity.
divorce case
Divorce Case
  • Affair with Kitty since 1880. 3 children
  • Aunt Ben Woods’ money in trust. After divorce, the will was contested and Kitty got nothing.
  • Parnell wanted to marry and did not contest the case. So, only O Shea’s side of the story was told.
  • Uproar in Britain. Gladstone had to cut his links with Parnell. He made this clear to Justin McCarthy who informed Parnell in word and in writing. Parnell was re-elected in November 1890 but many hoped he would resign.
  • Gladstone published his letter to McCarthy.
  • Parnell responded by issuing a manifesto questioning if Gladstones’ HR bill went far enough. This ended any hope of another Liberal HR bill while Parnell was around.
  • A majority of the HR Party demanded a meeting.
committee room 15
Committee Room 15
  • For 6 days Parnell would not allow a vote on the leadership. Eventually Justin McCarthy and 45 others walked out. Parnell was left with 27.
  • The anti-Parnellites had the support of the Catholic Church.
  • The Parnellites had the support of the Fenians.
  • Parnell lost a bitter by-election in Kilkenny by 2 to 1. Timothy Healy and Davitt slated Parnell and Kitty.
  • Parnell travelled Ireland drumming up support and fighting and losing 2 more by-elections.
  • Parnell married in June 1891
  • He died in October.
  • 200,000 attended his funeral
parnell a republican or a home ruler
Parnell, a Republican or a Home Ruler?
  • Impossible to know. He did not keep a diary and died before writing memoirs.
  • He hinted at independence but it was to win support.
  • A pragmatist.