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Day 101 : Industry Comes of Age. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute February 5, 2014 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green. OBJECTIVE. Students will analyze to what extent the big monopolies (steel, oil, railroad) contributed to class conflict by describing the role of the industry leaders.

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day 101 industry comes of age

Day 101: Industry Comes of Age

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute

February 5, 2014

A/A.P. U.S. History

Mr. Green


Students will analyze to what extent the big monopolies (steel, oil, railroad) contributed to class conflict by describing the role of the industry leaders.

industry comes of age 1865 1900
Industry Comes of Age 1865-1900


Explain how the transcontinental railroad network provided the basis for an integrated national market and the great post–Civil War industrial transformation.

Identify the abuses in the railroad industry and discuss how these led to the first efforts at industrial regulation by the federal government.

Describe how the economy came to be dominated by giant trusts, such as those headed by Carnegie and Rockefeller in the steel and oil industries, and the growing class conflict it precipitated.

Describe how new technological inventions fueled new industries and why American manufacturers increasingly turned toward the mass production of standardized goods.

AP Focus

Enormous immigration, mass production, and the presence of low-skill jobs drive down workers’ wages.

A catalyst for postwar industrial and economic expansion is the railroad industry, which not only facilitates trade, commerce, and transportation, but also makes locomotive production a major industry. The government plays a major role in the industry’s development and importance by providing the companies with millions of acres of free land—a giveaway, some say.

chapter focus
Chapter Focus

Chapter Themes

America accomplished heavy industrialization in the post–Civil War era. Spurred by the transcontinental rail network, business grew and consolidated into giant corporate trusts, as epitomized by the oil and steel industries.

Industrialization radically transformed the practices of labor and the condition of the American working people. But despite frequent industrial strife and the efforts of various reformers and unions, workers failed to develop effective labor organizations to match the corporate forms of business.


Submit Election Charts for 1884, 1888, 1892, 1896


The wealthy class is becoming more wealthy; but the poorer class is becoming more dependent. The gulf between the employed and the employer is growing wider; social contrasts are becoming sharper; as liveried carriages appear; so do barefooted children

Henry George, 1879

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the above quote?

How is the above argument utilized in today’s political narratives?

miracles of mechanization
Miracles of Mechanization

Foreign investors put the money into the hands of the private borrower

Innovations in transportation-coal, iron, oil

Mesabi Range-Chicago-Cleveland

Mass-production methods

440,000 patents issued between 1860 and 1890

Bell and Edison

the trust titan emerges
The Trust Titan Emerges

Vertical integration-combining into 1 organization all phases of manufacturing

Justified on the grounds of efficiency and quality

Horizontal integration-Trust developed by Rockefeller to control competitors

Interlocking directorates-J.P. Morgan placed his people in the businesses he bailed out

the supremacy of steel
The Supremacy of Steel

Capital Goods vs. Consumer Goods

Can you explain the difference

1870’s-Vanderbilt imported steel from Britain to update iron rails

1900-U.S. produced 1/3 of world’s steel

Bessemer process-cold air blown on red-hot iron caused the metal to become white-hot by igniting the carbon eliminating impurities

carnegie and other sultans of steel
Carnegie and Other Sultans of Steel

Accumulated capital and entered steel business in Pittsburgh

1900-produced ¼ of U.S. Bessemer steel

Financial giant-J.P. Morgan

made money and reputation by financing railroads, insurance companies and banks

Carnegie sold holdings to Morgan for $400 million

Carnegie spent the rest of his life giving away his money

Morgan reorganized the holdings to form U.S. Steel capitalized at 1.4 billion

rockefeller grows an american beauty rose
Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose

Drake’s Folly initiates oil boom in 1859

Kerosene burns brighter and is the 4th most valuable export

Edison makes kerosene obsolete

Internal combustion engine gives oil a 2nd chance

John D. Rockefeller organized Standard Oil in Ohio

Controlled 95% of refineries in US by 1877

Consolidation made oil cheaper and better

Trusts developed in sugar, tobacco, leather, harvester

A new rich develops

the gospel of wealth
The Gospel of Wealth

God given right to wealth

Social Darwinists

rich demonstrated greater abilities than the poor

Herbert Spencer coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”

This theory justified imperialism

The new rich gained wealth on their own

14th amendment utilized by the monopolies to define a corporations as a person, affording the business the right to due process

government tackles the trust evil
Government Tackles the Trust Evil

Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890

largely ineffective except to ban unions which restrained trade

the south in the age of industry
The South in the Age of Industry

Plantation system degenerated into share-cropping

Machine-made cigarettes

James Buchanan Duke-American Tobacco Company/Duke University

South kept subservient to Northern manufacturing

Textiles brought to the South for cheap labor

Entire families worked at Mill Towns, earning credit to buy food from the company store

the impact of the new industrial revolution on america
The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America

Using the Textbook from pages 583-592, identify 10 impacts of the new industrial revolution in America. Number your paper to ten. Each impact should be at least one sentence. You need to include labor unions as well as family impacts.


You will read two primary source documents and answer the following questions for each selection

1. In Praise of Mechanization (1897)

a. How does Levasseur (author of the selection) appraise the overall impact of mechanization? Is he convincing? Explain

b. What differences does Levasseur see between work conditions in Europe and those in the U.S.?

C. What does Levasseur identify as the principal complaints of U.S. workers? Does Levasseur consider them justified?

unions cont d

You will read two primary source documents and answer the following questions for each selection

A Tailor Testifies(1883)

a. What changes in work conditions had the tailor seen in his lifetime? Explain

b. Were the above changes for better or worse? Be specific

c. What did the changes imply for his family life?

  • Begin Reading first ½ of Chapter 25
  • Prepare for 5QQ on Tuesday
  • 1880s Decade Chart due on Monday-No late assignments will be accepted.