Career Management and Development Presented by: Group 8 (PM – II)
GROUP MEMBERS • SudhirKujur(43) • AbhaKujur(54) • Ravi Kumar Anand(18) • Mansi Sharma(8) • Christine D’Souza(32) • Rahul Ekka(74)
Questions for Discussion • When you think about the term “career,” what comes to your mind? • What is meant by the idea of a “new” employment relationship? • Does it make sense to speak of careers and career planning in today’s business environment? • What are the typical issues employees face as they progress through their careers? • What types of career development activities are actually used?
HRD and Career Development • Understanding employee careers • Influencing those careers • Changing KSAOs to reflect changes in environment • Assist employees in preparing for new work and enhance their employability
OLD If competent and reliable, job for life “Entitlement” mentality Paternalistic companies Loyalty expected up and down NEW No promise of Survivability Non-acquisition Room for promotion Job until retirement Money for your pension Undying loyalty up or down The “New Employment Relationship”
Results of “New Relationship” • Individuals responsible for their own development • Must demonstrate value added to company • Must understand nature and nuances of business
Employers Should: • Provide opportunities for development • Allow for employee participation in • Decision making • Career management • Performance-based compensation
What is a “Career”? • The property of an organization or occupation • Progression and increasing success • Status of a profession • Involvement in one’s work • Stability of person’s work pattern
“Career” Defined • “The pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person’s life.” • Includes objective and subjective views of work
Relationship of Career to Non- work Activities • Must consider all of person’s skills, abilities, and interests • Also must look at family and societal influences
Career Development • “An ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages, each of which can be characterized by relatively unique set of issues, themes and tasks.”
Career Planning • A deliberate process of: • Becoming aware of • Self • Opportunities • Constraints • Choices • Consequences • Identifying career-related goals • Working to attain career goals
Career Management • “Process of preparing, implementing and monitoring career plans undertaken by the individual alone or in concert with the organization’s career systems.”
Stages of Life and Career Development Stage views of adult development: • Erik Erickson • Daniel Levinson
Erikson’s Stages of Life • Basic trust vs. mistrust • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt • Initiative vs. guilt • Industry vs. inferiority • Identity vs. role confusion • Intimacy vs. isolation • Generativity vs. stagnation • Ego integrity vs. despair
Stage Views of Career Development • Traditional model of career development • Five stages in Greenhaus et al. model: • Preparation for Work (0–25) • Organizational Entry (18–25) • Early Career (25–40) • Midcareer (40–55) • Late Career (55–retirement)
Other Views of Career Development • Protean career – individuals must reinvent their careers over time (Hall & Mirvis) • Multiple career concept model: • Linear– steady movement up the hierarchy • Expert– devotion to expertise within an occupation • Spiral – periodic moves across related occupations • Transitory– frequent moves across different jobs or fields
Summary of Career Management Activities • Career exploration • Awareness of self and environment • Goal setting • Strategy development • Strategy implementation • Progress toward goal • Feedback from work and non-work sources • Career appraisal
Roles in Career Management Employees Manager Company HR Manager
The EMPLOYEE’s Role • Take the initiative to ask for feedback from managers and peers regarding their skill strengths and weaknesses • Identify their stage of career development and development needs • Seek challenges by gaining exposure to a range of learning opportunities • Interact with employees from different work groups inside and outside the company • Create visibility through good performance
HRD Professional’s Responsibility • Provide information or advice about training and development opportunities • Provide specialized services such as testing to determine employees’ values, interests, and skills • Help prepare employees for job searches • Offer counseling on career-related problems
COMPANY’S ROLE • Companies are responsible for providing employees with the resources needed to be successful in career planning: • Career workshops • Information on career and job opportunities • Career planning workbooks • Career counseling • Career paths
Organization Potential Assessment • Assessing individuals to ensure they are available and qualified to fill key positions when they become vacant • Assesses promotability of employees • Managerial • Professional • Technical • Assessments of organizational potential • Potential ratings • Assessment centers • Succession planning
CAREER STAGES • A career consists of a sequence of work related positions occupied by a person during a course of a lifetime. Employees progress through at least four distinct career stages: • The establishment stage (ages 21-26 years) • The advancement stage (ages 26-40 years) • The maintenance stage (ages 40-60 years) • The withdrawal stage (ages 60 years and above)
Potential conflicts between organization & individual 1. Concern for effective and efficient operation, profit and productivity 2. Concern for all members of the organization 3. Need to fill the rates in the organization structure 4. Need for skills to fill all positions 5. Need for some specific, well developed skills 6. Best utilization of all talents within the organization 7. Manager to work in geographic location best for the organization 1. Concern for self-fulfilment and self-actualization 2. Concern for self 3. Need self-fulfilment and self actualization 4. Interest in challenging work only 5. Bored by routine work using specific skills 6. How to utilize own potential within or outside the enterprise 7. Location must suitable for self and family Organizational Needs and Demands Individual Needs and Career Goals
The strategy is to match individual strengths and organizational opportunities. Specifically, a successful career planning process involves the following steps: 1. Preparation of a personal profile (know thyself). 2. Development of long-term personal and professional goals. (Note, the terms "goals" and "objectives" will be used interchangeably.) 3. Identification and evaluation of the present environment, its threats and opportunities. 4. Forecasting and making predictions within the company as well as outside; identification of threats and opportunities. 5. Analysis of personal strengths and weaknesses. 6. Development of strategic career alternatives. 7. Testing for consistency of strategies and re-evaluation of career goals. 8. Evaluation and choosing from alternatives. 9. Development of short-range objectives and action plans. 10. Development of contingency plans. 11. Implementation of the career plan. 12. Monitoring progress.
Succession Planning Involves identifying key management positions that the organization cannot afford to have vacant. PURPOSE • Facilitates transition when an employee leaves. • Identifies development needs of high potential employees and assists with their career planning
Replacement Chart Identify key positions and possible successors for each of these positions . For Example :- J. Smith V.P Marketing C.Williams Productions Manager 15 months S. Anderson Director Marketing Research 1 year R.Jones Sales Director Ready now
Succession Planning helps • To ensure that key positions remain filled. • To identify critical training and development needs of both individual managers and the organization as a whole .
Pros and Cons of Disclosing Succession Planning Disadvantages Advantages Do not tell Tell
Succession Planning at GE • In 1994, years before he retired from GE, Jack Welch had started the succession planning process. He developed a list of qualities, skills and characteristics a CEO should essentially have. • In November 2000, General Electric Inc. (GE) announced that Jeff Immelt (Immelt), the president and CEO of GE Medical Systems, would be the successor to Jack Welch (Welch), the Chairman and CEO of the company. Welch was to retire in September 2001, after a successful 41-year stint at GE. • The three candidates for the top spot at GE were Immelt, W. James McNerney (McNerney), CEO of GE Aircraft Engines, and Robert L.Nardelli (Nardelli), president and CEO of GE Power Systems
Choosing between the final trio "was the most difficult and agonizing decision, ever had to make….All the three exceeded every expectation we set for them.” Welch characterized Immelt as "a natural leader, and ideally suited to lead GE for many years,“.
But what did Jack Welch think of succession planning? One of his most admired skills was the ability to develop his subordinates so there was always someone ready to take his place when Jack was offered a promotion. Furthermore, in 1991, Jack Welch stated: "From now on, choosing my successor is the most important decision I'll make. It occupies a considerable amount of thought almost every day." • The fact that McNerney and Nardelli were taken on as the CEOs of 3M and Home Depot, respectively, within weeks of their losing out to Immelt, was in itself taken by observers as testimony of corporate America's confidence in leaders groomed by GE.
Leadership Development in GE Succession planning is an ongoing, rigorous and challenging process at GE. GE adopted succession planning right from the mid-1900s. At GE, succession planning was not confined to only the top management, but was applied across all tiers of management. The managers of GE's various businesses were encouraged to identify potential candidates and fulfill their development needs, and transform them into efficient leaders ready to take up top jobs at the company. As part of CEO succession planning, GE shifted its key candidates from one business to another to enable them to gain experience across all its businesses.
The company used mainly annual performance reviews for identifying potential candidates, until the early 1980s. However, after Welch took over as the CEO, the succession planning process at GE became a more systematic process, with the use of various analytical tools and the involvement of the top management in leadership development and succession planning. Since early 1980s, the annual Human Resource Reviews (popularly called Session C) had been at the heart of succession planning at GE. The Session C process was reportedly given as much importance as financial monitoring in GE