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Chapter 9 Management Development and Career Management • Management Development • Career Management
Managing Careers and Fair Treatment Behavioral Objectives When you finish studying this chapter, you should be able to: • Discuss the manager’s and employer’s role in the career management process. • Explain how you would make a new subordinate’s first assignment more meaningful. • Discuss how to more effectively manage promotions and transfers.
Managing Careers and Fair Treatment • Explain in detail techniques for building two-way communications in organizations. • Discuss how you would discipline employees. • Define wrongful discharge and explain its importance. • Explain how to dismiss an employee.
Chapter Outline • The Basics of Career Management • Managing Promotions and Transfers • Managing Fair Treatment • managing Dismissals
Key words career planning and development The deliberate process through which a person becomes aware of personal career-related attributes and the lifelong series of stages that contribute to his or her career fulfillment. reality shock Results of period that may occur at the initial career entry when the new employee’s high job expectations confront the reality of a boring, unchallenging job.
Key words speak up! programs Communications programs that allow employees to register questions, concerns, and complaints about work-related matters. opinion surveys Communication devices that use questionnaires to regularly ask employees their opinions about the company, management, and work life.
Key words top-down programs Communications activities including in-house television centers, frequent roundtable discussions, and in-house newsletters that provide continuing opportunities for the firm to let all employees be updated on important matters regarding the firm. discipline A procedure that corrects or punishes a subordinate because a rule or procedure has been violated.
Key words dismissal Involuntary termination of an employee’s employment with the firm. termination at will The idea, based in law, that the employment relationship can be terminated at will by either the employer or the employee for any reason.
Key words insubordination Willful disregard or disobedience of the boss’s authority or legitimate orders; criticizing the boss in public. wrongful discharge An employee dismissal that does not comply with the law or does not comply with the contractual arrangement stated or implied by the firm via its employment application forms, employee manuals, or other promises.
Key words termination interview The interview in which an employee is informed of the fact that he or she has been dismissed. outplacement counseling A systematic process by which a terminated person is trained and counseled in the techniques of self-appraisal and securing a new position.
Key words plant closing law The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, which requires notifying employees in the event an employer decides to close its facility. layoff A situation in which there is a temporary shortage of work and employees are told there is no work for them but that management intends to recall them when work is again available.
Key words bumping/layoff procedures Detailed procedures that determine who will be laid off if no work is available; generally allow employees to use their seniority to remain on the job. voluntary reduction in pay plan An alternative to layoffs in which all employee agree to reductions in pay to keep everyone working.
Key words voluntary time off An alternative to layoffs in which some employees agree to take time off to reduce the employer’s payroll and avoid the need for a layoff. rings of defense An alternative layoff plan in which temporary supplemental employees are hired with the understanding that they may be laid off at any time.
Key words downsizing Refers to the process of reducing, usually dramatically, the number of people employed by the firm. retirement The point at which a person giver up one’s work, usually between the ages of 60 to 65, but increasingly earlier today due to firms’ early retirement incentive plans.
Key words preretirement counseling Counseling provided to employees who are about to retire, which covers matters such as benefits advice, second careers, and so on.
Management Development • Goals and importance • Procedures of management development • Theoretical approaches • Management training techniques • Special concerns in management development
(3) Goals and importance • What is management development? Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. B. Goals of management development: To enhance the future performance of the organization and meet individual needs for development.
(2) Procedures of management development • Organization analysis: assessing organization needs. • Management analysis: appraising the current performance of the managers and identifying talents. • Designing the training program. • Implementing the training program. • Evaluating the training program.
(3) Theoretical approaches • Managerial Role Theory • The Leader Match Concept • The managerial Grid • The Role Motivation Theory • The Achievement motivation Theory
Managerial Role Theory (Henry Hintzberg) • Figurehead: Symbolic head to perform routine duties. • Leader: Responsible for motivating the employees. • Liaison: acting as a link in the communication network. • Monitor: observing internal ad external changes. • Disseminator: transmitting information in the organization. • Spokesman: transmitting information to outsiders. • Entrepreneur: taking initiatives and risks. • Disturbance handler: solving conflicts and problems. • Resource allocator: allocating resource appropriately. • Negotiator: negotiating all issues for the organization.
B. The leader Match Theory (Fred Fielder) • The effectiveness of a leader depends on a proper match between the leader’s leadership style and the situation he/she works in. • The leadership style is tested by the LPC (Least Preferred CO-Worker) test: High LPC—relationship-oriented; Low LPC—task-oriented. • The situation structure is measured by three factors: Leader-member relations; task structure; position power. • The ideal match model: • High LPC: moderate situation. • Low LPC: favorable or unfavorable situation. • Suggestion: Change the situation to meet leadership style.
(4) Management training techniques • On-job training techniques • Off-job training techniques
On-job training techniques • Job rotation: to move the trainee from department to department. • Coaching/understudy: to let the trainee work directly with a senior manager. • Action learning: Let the trainees work full-time on projects, analyzing and solving problems in departments other than his/her own. • Management meeting: let the trainee attend senior management meeting as an auditor.
B. Off-job training techniques • Case study: give business cases to the trainees to discuss in group for the problem and solution. • Management games/role playing: organize the trainees into team to play in different kinds of games to shape their behavior and value systems. • Outside seminars: hold seminars with managers on specific topics. • University-related programs: get formal education in the university. • Behavior modeling: set behavior model for the trainees to follow.
(5) Special concerns in management development • Training to improve ratings: train the managers to improve their rating of the subordinates. • Cross-cultural training: train the managers to operate in a multinational situation. • Professional obsolescence: update professional knowledge to avoid the problem of obsolescen • Stress management: train the managers to properly handle stress at work.
Importance and goals • Definition: career is a series of jobs or work-related positions during the course of a person’s life. • Career management: a process by which individuals develop, implement, and monitor career goals and strategies. • Goals of career management: • Organization: motivate employees and obtain their commitment. • Individuals: self-actualization.
(2) The career management model Information, opportunities, and Support Need to make decision
(3) A guide to career exploration • Career exploration: • Self exploration: values, interests and talents. • Environmental exploration: occupations and organizations. • Goal-setting: life-long goals and temporary goals. • Strategy development: design a sequence of activities to attain the career goal. • Career appraisal: obtain feedback from people on one’s progress.