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Human Population : Growth, Demography and Carrying Capacity Chapter 11 Miller 11th Edition PowerPoint Presentation
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Human Population : Growth, Demography and Carrying Capacity Chapter 11 Miller 11th Edition

Human Population : Growth, Demography and Carrying Capacity Chapter 11 Miller 11th Edition

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Human Population : Growth, Demography and Carrying Capacity Chapter 11 Miller 11th Edition

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  1. Human Population:Growth, Demography and Carrying Capacity Chapter 11Miller 11th Edition Environmental Science

  2. Human Population Growth Historically • Early Hunter Gatherers • Nomadic, With a Strong Sense of the Earth • Practiced Intentional Birth Control • Rise of Agriculture • Necessary for Survival • Animals became extinct via predation and altered habitat • Humans began to cultivate own food

  3. C. Agriculture Gives Rise to Cities • Food Produced in Country, Consumed in City • Food wastes are no longer returned to soil • Soil becomes less productive • Waste of Populations Concentrated in Cities • Population Control in Medieval Societies • Infanticide • Plagues

  4. D. Industrialization • View of Children During Early Phases of Industrial Growth • Valued as cheap source of income and cheap labor • Exponential growth of populations • By 1900s, Birth Rate in Industrialized World Dropped • Rise in standards of living • Safe and inexpensive means of birth control introduced • Increase in the cost of child rearing

  5. MI L L I O NS

  6. Population Projections Over 95% of this increase will take place in “Developing Countries”

  7. Current World Population • Population ClockVital Events (per time unit) U.S. 305,743,149World 6,758,197,40100:42 GMT (EST+5) Feb 04, 2009 • The global population grows by: • Nearly 2.3persons per seconds • Nearly 8,343 persons per hour • Over 200,234 persons per day • Over 73 million persons per year

  8. How Much is a Billion? • 1,000 seconds = 16.7 minutes • 1 million-s = 16,677 min = 11.6 days • 1 billion-s = 11,574 days = 31.7 years • 1,000 pennies = ~ 88 ounces = 5.5 pounds • 1 million pennies = 5,500 pounds (~1-Suburban) • 1 billion pennies = 2,750 tons (~2 Space Shuttles)

  9. Human Population Outline • Factors Affecting Human Population Size • Population Age Structure • Influencing Population Size • Carrying Capacity

  10. Human Population Dynamics • There are just three sources of change in population size — • fertility • mortality • "natural decrease" refers to population decline resulting from more deaths than births • migration • Net migration is the number of immigrants minus emigrants

  11. Rates of Global Pop. Changeuse: International Data Base http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbnew.html, then Online Demographic Aggregation • CBR (crude birth rate) = # births / 1000 population 1990: 24 now: 20.6 • CDR (crude death rate) = # deaths / 1000 population 1990: 9 now: 8.8 • Growth Rate = (b + i) – (d + e) 1990: 1.5% now: 1.19% • growth rates have come down

  12. Human Population Dynamics • Total fertility rate (TFR) • The average number of children born to a woman • Average in developed countries = 1.5 • Average in developing countries = 3.8 • Worldwide 1990: 3.1 now: 2.76 • Replacement fertility rate (RFR) • The number of children a couple must have to replace themselves • A TFR of 2.1 for developed countries with low infant and child mortality rates • Africa RFR = 2.5

  13. What Is Family Planning? • Definition • Measures enabling parents to control number of children (if they so desire) • Goals of Family Planning • Not to limit births • For couples to have healthy children • For couples to be able to care for their children • For couples to have the number of children that they want

  14. China’s Program • Nation With Best Known Population Control Program • Reasons Chinese Government Initiated Population Control Measures • Freshwater and food at a premium for nation’s population • Country experiencing population momentum • Government Perks / Coercive Measures for Citizen Compliance • Free education and health care • Increased personal and family incomes • Increased legal marrying age for women • Contraceptives, abortions, and sterilizations free of charge • Preferential housing and retirement income

  15. What Methods are Used to Control Births? • Preconception Birth Control Methods • Barrier Methods • Condom • Vaginal sponge • Diaphragm • Spermicides • Hormonal Contraceptives • Pill • Injections and implants • Sterilization • Postconception Birth Control Measures • Intrauterine Device • RU-486 Pill • Abortion

  16. Contraceptive Use Worldwide • People in industrialized countries enjoy easy access to contraceptives while those in LDCs do not. • In the U.S., teens and poor women are least likely to use contraceptives. • Severe problems are associated with teen pregnancy.

  17. Human Population Dynamics • infant mortality rate • IMR • infant deaths per 1000 live births (infant < 1 yr) • 1990: 62 now: 52.4 (normal in 1900: 200)

  18. http://www.povertymap.net/pub/mipwa/sections/w-global/health-sanit/infant-mortality-2.htmhttp://www.povertymap.net/pub/mipwa/sections/w-global/health-sanit/infant-mortality-2.htm

  19. www.tte-online.com/.../table-of-contents/ chem-enc-1.html

  20. Maternal Deaths per 100,000 Live Births Source: WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA Maternal Mortality in 1995: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF AND UNFPA, 2001.

  21. Migration Net migration is the number of immigrants minus emigrants

  22. Overall, the world population is growing at a rate of about 1.7 per cent; if this rate continues, the population will double in 42 years. • Unabated, such a rate would lead to a point about 2000 years hence when the mass of humanity would weigh more, and be larger, than the Earth. • But, the growth rate is decreasing

  23. Human Population Outline • Factors Affecting Human Population Size • Population Age Structure • Influencing Population Size • Carrying Capacity

  24. Population Pyramids • Graphic device: bar graph • shows the age and gender composition of a region • horizontal axis: gender • male: left-hand female: right-hand • absolute number of people or % • vertical axis: age • 5-year or 10-year age groups

  25. Population Pyramid with young cohorts

  26. Population Pyramids • Population Pyramids on the Web • High Growth: Afghanistan • Moderate Growth: Mexico • Zero Growth: U.S. • Negative Growth: Austria or Italy

  27. Population Pyramids • Population Pyramids on the Web • High Growth: Afghanistan • Moderate Growth: Mexico • Zero Growth: U.S. • Negative Growth: Austria or Italy

  28. Population Pyramids • Population Pyramids on the Web • High Growth: Afghanistan • Moderate Growth: Mexico • Zero Growth: U.S. • Negative Growth: Austria or Italy

  29. Population Pyramids • Population Pyramids on the Web • High Growth: Afghanistan • Moderate Growth: Mexico • Zero Growth: U.S. • Negative Growth: Italy

  30. Demographic Transition • Movement of a nation from high population growth to low population as it develops economically • Transition as a result of four stages • Stage 1—Birth and death rates are both high • Stage 2—Death rates fall; birth rates remain high; growth rate rises • Stage 3—Birth rates fall as standard of living rises; growth rate falls • Stage 4—Growth rate continues to fall to zero or to a negative rate

  31. The Demographic Transition

  32. Five Stages of the Demographic Transition • Used to be 4, now 5 stages • birth rates, death rates and growth rates systematically change through time as societies change: • modernize, urbanize • gain access to technology

  33. Population Pyramids and Demographic Stages • characteristics shapes of ‘pyramids’ • wide base (true pyramid) • wide middle (bulge), somewhat wider base • urn- or bottle-shaped • reversed pyramid • different shapes--different dynamics

  34. Stage 1 • high birth rates, high (at time erratic) death rates, low growth rates • stage for much of human history, traditional societies • practically no country today

  35. Stage 2 • high birth rates, declining death rates, rising growth rates • improvements in sanitation (water) and medicine • in Europe during Industrial Revolution • in developing countries since the 50s/60s • much of Africa today, some countries of Asia (Afghanistan, Nepal, etc.)

  36. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition • Stage 2: wide base • stage 3: wide middle • stage 4: slender • stage 5: narrow base

  37. Stage 3 • continued decline of death rates, declining birth rates, growth rates decline from high to lower levels • change in behavior: adaptation to lower death rate, in particular infant mortality rate • economic change: urbanization (incentive to have fewer children) • Mexico today