PHOTOVOLTAICS Solar 7 Cesar Caso
1. Photovoltaic systems are solar energy systems that produce electricity directly from sunlight. 2. Many utilities have recently installed large photovoltaic arrays to provide consumers with solar-generated electricity. Section 1.1 Outline
3. In 1905 Albert Einstein offered his explanation of the photoelectric effect. 4. Scientists continued research on the selenium cell despite its low efficiency and high production costs. 5. In the 1950's Bell Laboratories discovered that silicon, the second most abundant element on earth, was sensitive to light and, generated a substantial voltage.
6. By 1954, Bell developed a silicon-based cell that achieved six percent efficency. 7. NASA installed a PV system on the US' second satellite, Vanguard I. 8. By the early 1960's PV systems were being installed on most satellites and spacecraft.
9. Today, solar modules supply electricity to more than 1 million homes worldwide, producing thousands of jobs and creating sustainable economic opportunities. 10. In 2005, world solar PV market installations totaled 1,460 megawatts and over $7 billion. 11. The applications include commnunications, refrigeration for health care, lighting, marine and air navigation, utility power, etc.
Who received the Noble prize for the PV effect? • Albert Einstein did not receive the 1921 Nobel prize in Physics for the theory of relativity but rather for his work on the PV effect.
How did that affect the industry? • It helped Daryl Chapin and his colleagues invent the first practical device for converting sunlight into electrical power, when they were experimenting with semiconductors and accidentally realized that silicon doped with certain impurities was actually very sensitive to light. • This finally resulted in the production of the first useful solar cell with the efficiency for sunlight energy conversion of about 6%. Now Solar is a reliable source of electric power and it's regarded as the future of energy production. Source: www.scienceprog.com/evolution-of-solar-cells
What was the name of NASA's program for the first PV satellite? • It was Vanguard I and on March 15, 1958 it became America's second satellite in space. • Vanguard I is 6 inches in diameter and weighs about 3 pounds. • A small PV array (less than one watt) on the space satellite powered its radios.
What Alternate sources of power were considered for the satellite? • The engineers wanted a reliable energy source, batteries, but Vanguard's solar cells operated for about 7 years, while conventional batteries used to power another on-board transmitter lasted only 20 days. • Vanguard I validated in flight that solar cells could be used for several years to power radio transmitters.
What was the Russian program called and how was it powered? • Sputnik, Russian for "fellow traveler of earth," was an unmanned Soviet satellite that orbited the earth on the 4th of October 1957. The power supply consisted of three silver-zinc batteries, • Two of them powered the radio transmitter and one powered the temperature regulation system.
In its potential to create jobs, solar energy is ready to hit its stride. In its 2009 study, the American Solar Energy Society (ASES) and Management Information Services, Inc. indicate that the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy industry could create 37 million jobs by the year 2030. While some traditional jobs will be lost, 4.5 million net jobs will result, and 487,000 of these will be for developing and installing photovoltaics and concentrating solar energy. Describe the current and future job opportunities in solar
GreenTechMedia reports that a new study on the photovoltaic (PV) market conducted by GTM Research predicts that solar energy installations in the U.S. will grow about 50% per year over the next three years. The U.S. will experience the most rapid demand of PV markets around the world, possibly exceeding Germany, the current leader. This growth in demand will translate to a complementary increase in a variety of jobs in the solar power industry.
Over a 5 year period, photovoltaics have grown very rapidly. The year 2006 was a turning point: for the first time the capacity of new photovoltaics installed exceeded that of new nuclear plant. In 2007, the margin became even larger. The expectation of industry consultants is of a massive explosion in photovoltaic growth. Some analysts believe that photovoltaics could well overtake wind as being the renewable installed in the largest capacity in 2012.
What was the total global market in dollars for solar in 2009? • World solar photovoltaic (PV) market installations reached a record high of 6.43 gigawatt (GW) in 2009, representing growth of 6% over the previous year. The PV industry generated $38 billion in global revenues in 2009.
European countries accounted for 74% of world demand in 2009. The top three countries in Europe were Germany, Italy and Czech Republic, they collectively accounted for 4.07 GW. All three countries experienced soaring demand, with Italy becoming the second largest market in the world. • In contrast, Spanish demand in 2009 collapsed to just 4% of its prior year level. • The third largest market in the world was the United States, which grew 36% to 485 MW. Following closely behind was a rejuvenated Japan, which took fourth spot, growing 109%. • Looking forward, the industry will return to high growth in 2010 and also over the next 5 years. Even in the slowest growth scenario, the global market will be 2.5 times its current size by 2014. Under the Production Led scenario, the fastest growing forecast, annual industry revenues approach $100 billion by 2014. Source: www.solarbuzz.com/Marketbuzz2010-intro.htm
How many dollars from ARRA (American Recovery & Reinvestment Act) are expected in 2010? ARRA has created a host of grants, tax credits and loan guarantees for manufacturing solar energy equipment and installing it. These federal subsidies, coupled with states' own incentives and mandates for renewable energy installations and consumption, will propel growth for residential and utility-scale projects. Manufacturing Tax Credits - In total, $2.3 billion worth of credits may be allocated under the program.
Clean Energy Renewable Bonds - ARRA provides an additional $1.6 billion of new CREBs to finance solar thermal electric, solar PV and others. Renewable Energy Loan Guarantee Program - ARRA extends the authority of the US Department of Energy to issue loan guarantees and appropriated $6 billion for this program. Research and Development, Demonstration Projects - ARRA provides $2.5 billion in direct spending for renewable energy and energy efficiency. Source: www.utahcleanenergy.org/policies_and_issues/arra_clean_energy_stimulus_summary
How many dollars from CSI (California Solar Initiative) are expected in 2010? A Decade of Support for Solar: The California Solar Initiative is part of the Go Solar California campaign and builds on 10 years of state solar rebates offered to customers in California's investor-owned utility territories: Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E.) The CSI is overseen by the California Public Utilities Commission. The California Solar Initiative has a budget of $2,167 million (2007-2016). http://www.gosolarcalifornia.org/csi/index.html
List the different types of jobs in solar thermal and PV. Which are you interested in? • Solar Power Project Managers • Solar Power Structural Engineers & P.E. • Solar Technicians & Permit Specialists • Solar Designers & Assesors & Auditors • Solar Installers, Electric, Carpenters & Plumbers • Sales, Marketing, Media I'm interested in being a solar panel installer. I'll be responsible for all installation aspects associated with solar systems, including electrical wiring and mounting.
Why are you in Solar 7? • To learn all the skills needed to be a Solar Installer and then work my way up to being a technician.
The advantages of PV technology • Reliability in harsh conditions. Solar panels can be mounted using your choice of roof, ground, or top-of-pole mounts. This hardware system and the modules it supports are rated to withstand winds up to 125 MPH and up to 1 inch hail. Solar panels must withstand heat, cold, rain and hail for many years. One should note that the Solar Panels have the strength to bear all the weather conditions normally faced by the roofing materials.
Reliability in harsh conditions Last Saturday, March 14, Long Island was slammed by a massive coastal storm that recorded wind speeds over 70 mph. More than 260,000 LIPA, a non-profit municipal electric provider, customers lost power for various amounts of time. • You can see that the shingles are coming off the roof but the solar system is still in place! The systems can handle extreme storms!
What Happens in a Hailstorm? Fortunately severe hail bearing storms tend to approach with northerly winds in the northern hemisphere and southerly winds in the southern hemisphere. The result is that the trajectory of the hail is such that it will hit the back of the solar panel or make a glancing blow only on the front surface of the solar panel. Even though the solar panel can withstand a direct hit from quite large hail stones, the glancing of hail off the surface of the panels means a much lower impact force. Therefore the solar panels are readily able to escape undamaged from hailstorms that are extremely violent and involve exceptionally large hailstones.
Durability: Most modules are guaranteed to produce power for 25 years. Keep in mind that many solar panels do age and the efficiency decreases continually. Look at the Manufacturers' warranties for the electrical power output. A general guide on "The Efficiency of Solar Panels" would be that they can guarantee the electrical production for 10 years at 90% rated power output. (80% for 25 years.) • Low Maintenance cost: PV systems require only periodic inspection and occasional maintenance. • Reduced sound pollution and No fuel cost : Modern PV systems are silent and no fuel source is required. • Safety: PV systems are safe when properly installed. • Independence: PV users' independence from utilities. • High altitude performance: Increased insolation at high altitudes optimizes power output.
The disadvantages of PV technology • Initial cost: As the initial cost cost decreases, PV systems will become more economically competitive. The higher the quality of the solar cells and the more solar cells in a solar panel, the more total electrical output the solar panel can produce. • Weather can greatly affect the power output of any solar-based system. You will have low sun energy due to cloudy or rainy days or obstructions. When setting up solar panels, make sure there are no trees shading any parts of the panels and if possible, look into equipment that would rotate the solar panels to optimize the direct rays of the sun each day.
Energy storage: Some PV systems use batteries for storing energy, increasing the size, cost and complexity of the system. This is a 48V battery bank. • Efficiency improvements often dictates replacing inefficient appliances. Though many energy-efficient appliances are popping up, a lot of people still own ones which are anything but. • Education: PV systems is a new technology, lack of information slows market and technological growth.
The Components of a grid-tied system without batteries • Photovoltaic cell: Thin squares, discs or films of semiconductor material that generate voltage and current when exposed to sunlight.
Array: One or more panels wired together for a specific voltage & fastened to a mounting structure.
Inverter: An electrical device that changes direct current to alternating current (AC).
AC Service Panel: It's the point at which all of a home’s electrical wiring meets with the “provider” of the electricity, whether that’s the grid or a solar-electric system. It contains a number of labeled circuit breakers that route electricity to the various rooms throughout a house.
AC Utility Meter: Allows you to keep track of how much power your system is generating. If you are off-grid you can use it to monitor your system's output and how much power you have consumed over time.
Power Lines: Power is usually transmitted through overhead power lines at high voltages (110 kV or above) to reduce the energy lost in long distance transmission.
Watt's Law • Watt's law describes a relationship between voltage(V), current(I) and power(P) in an electric circuit. • Using the equation, P = V * I, and given any two of the three variables (P, V, or I), the unknown value can be solved. • For example, if the P is covered, V times I (or VxI) will be the equation needed to solve for power. Similarly, if the V is covered, P over I (or P / I) will be used to solve for voltage.
What is kWh? • Kilowatt-hours of electricity are equal to 1,000 watt-hours and are abbreviated kWh. • Utility companies bill their customers for the number of kilowatt-hours consumed. Power = Watts = Volts x Amps 1,000 Watts = 1 kW Energy = Watts x Hours 1,000 Watt-hours = 1 kWh
The 3 Basic Circuits: LOAD Series Circuits: • Wiring connections are made at the positive (+) end of one module to the negetavie (-) end of another module. • When power sources are connected in series, the voltage increases.
Parallel Circuits: • Wiring connections are made from the positive (+) to positive (+) terminals and negative (-) to negative (-) terminals between modules. LOAD • When power sources are connected in parallel, the Amperage increases.
Series and Parallel Circuits • Systems may use a mix of series and parallel wiring to obtain required voltages and amperes. • Four 4-amp, 12V DC modules are wired in series and parallel. The result is a 8-amp, 24V DC system. LOAD 6v x 3
Pope Benedict is the first pontiff to use solar energy to power-up the Vatican itself. THE END