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Do Now: Copy HW & Take a packet Put WEATHER REVIEW HW on DESK Earth Science Text Book HW: Monday: Read p 300-305 Q’s 1-4 Tuesday: Read p 280 to 282 Q’s 1-5 Wednesday: Test Corrections Thursday: Ground water practice problems Friday: Lab Quiz Today, No HW 

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slide1

Do Now: Copy HW & Take a packet

Put WEATHER REVIEW HW on DESK

Earth Science Text Book HW:

Monday: Read p 300-305 Q’s 1-4

Tuesday: Read p 280 to 282 Q’s 1-5

Wednesday: Test Corrections

Thursday: Ground water practice problems

Friday: Lab Quiz Today, No HW 

Extra Help: Thursday Morning & Lunch A days

water cycle
Water Cycle
  • The process through which water is continuously circulating between the atmosphere and ground
slide3

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

runoff

Evaporation

Evaporation

infiltration

infiltration

runoff

infiltration

The Water (Hydrologic) Cycle

-all the ways that water vapor enters the air

Condensation

Animal Respiration

Transpiration

groundwater
Groundwater
  • Water that has infiltrated below the ground surface and is stored in pore spaces.

Water Table

slide6
-When precipitation hits the ground it will either infiltrate earth’s surface, run off, or evaporate.
  • -Infiltration can occur if the surface is permeable and unsaturated, and if the land is gentle enough.
  • -The rate of infiltration is determined by the porosity and permeability of the soil.
slide10

Elements of the Water Budget

P

All the PRECIPITATION that falls in one month

slide11

Elements of the Water Budget

P

All the PRECIPITATION that falls in one month

EP

Potential Evapotranspiration

The ENERGY available to evaporate water

slide13

Elements of the Water Budget

P

All the PRECIPITATION that falls in one month

EP

The ENERGY available to evaporate water

P- EP

If P-EP > 0, then....

If P-EP < 0, then....

There’s energy that can still evaporate more water

There’s water left over

When water is left over after evaporation, it can do either of 2 things.....

Left over energy can “look” for more water.....(where?)

Soak into the ground (“infiltrate”)

“Run off” in streams

In the soil! (called “Storage”)

draw this diagram in your notes
Draw this diagram in your notes
  • Label pore spaces and saturated zone and the zone of aeration, and the water table
porosity
Porosity
  • Porosity is the amount of open space between soil particles
  • Porosity depends on how tightly packed particles are.
  • It also depends on particle shape and how well they are sorted
porosity1
Porosity
  • Percent of open space in a material.
factors that effect porosity
Factors that Effect Porosity
  • Shape
  • Sorting
  • Packing
  • Particle size does not effect porosity
shape

Porosity

Particle Shape

Shape
  • Angular particles have lower porosity
  • Rounder particle have higher porosity
sorting

Porosity

Particle sorting

Sorting
  • Well sorted particles have higher porosity
packing

Porosity

Packing

Packing
  • Loosely packed particles have higher porosity.
slide23

35%

35%

35%

High

Porosity

Low

Small

Large

Particle Size

  • If shape, sorting and packing are the same for samples with different sizes but uniform shapes porosity will be the same.
do now focused free write
Do Now: Focused Free Write
  • Consider two uniform samples of round sediments, Sample A are .5cm in diameter and Sample B are 2.0cm in diameter. Both samples are packed evenly, which sample has more porosity? Explain your reasoning.
permeability
Permeability
  • Permeability is the ability of water to pass through the soil.
  • The more open and interconnected the spaces are between the particles the greater the permeability rate.
permeability2
Permeability
  • Impermeable soil refers to soil that water CAN NOT Infiltrate (seep through). If the ground is IMPERMEABLE the water will become RUNOFF.
  • Rapid = Permeable
  • No flow = impermeable
  • Depends on interconnectedness of pore spaces.
runoff
Runoff
  • Water that does not infiltrate the soil.
  • Runoff occurs when the soil is saturated, the slope is steep or the ground is impermeable.

Runoff refers to the water that is not evaporated, and that does not soak into the ground. It is the water we find in streams.

b factors affecting permeability

High

Permeability

Low

Small

Large

Particle Size

B. Factors Affecting Permeability
  • Size: Large particles have higher permeability.
  • Clay is nearly impermeable
b factors affecting permeability1
B. Factors Affecting Permeability

Soil Capacity: The amount of water that soil can hold, based on the porosity.

Saturated soil: pore spaces between soil particles are completely filled with water

Unsaturated soil: some pore space between soil particles are filled with air, so there is still room for water to infiltrate

The degree of saturation of the soil: the more saturated the soil already is , the less infiltration.

b factors affecting permeability2
B. Factors Affecting Permeability

3. Slope of the land- steeper the slope (gradient) the less infiltration.

permeability and vegetation

Permeability

Amt of Veg

Permeability and Vegetation
  • Vegetation Growing on the Soil
  • Vegetation: any plant life
  • Plant roots help create pathways for water to flow through into the ground.
slide37

Infiltration rate

Infiltration rate

Permeability

Slope

Porosity

Infiltration rate

Soil Storage Saturation

INFILTRATION

Infiltration refers to water soaking into the ground:

Infiltration rate

slide38

Do Now:

Take a lab from the Do Now Desk

-HW on desk

-Read the lab quietly to yourself

capillary action
Capillary Action

Capillarity- attractive force between water and soil particles that prevents some of the water from moving downward.

-The movement of water against the force of gravity

The greater the surface area, the greater the capillarity, therefore it always depends on particle size. Smaller particles have more surface area and therefore more capillary action. Capillarity is why some water is retained in the intermediate belt in the diagram below called the capillary fringe.

capillarity
Capillarity
  • The ability of water to rise in small openings of soil or other materials, due to the forces of adhesion and cohesion.
  • The smaller the particles the greater the capillarity.

High

Capillarity

Low

Small

Large

Particle Size

do now
Do Now:
  • Check board for name, please hand in missing progress reports
  • Focused free write:
  • Define capillary action, which particle size has the greatest potential for capillary action? Why?
slide46

Streams:

natural channels which allow water to flow downhill

slide47

DISCHARGE

VOLUME OF WATER FLOWING PAST A SPOT IN A GIVEN AMOUNT OF TIME

a sources of water for streams
A. Sources of water for streams:
  • 1.
  • 2.

precipitation

groundwater

factors affecting runoff and stream discharge
Factors Affecting Runoff and Stream Discharge

Stream discharge- volume of water flowing past a certain spot in a stream in a specific amount of time.

- most runoff gets into streams and as runoff increases,

discharge increases

runoff vs discharge
Runoff Vs. Discharge

Discharge

Runoff

b in moist climates streams are fed by

High

WaterTable

Ground water

B. In moist climates, streams are fed by

During dry spells

c in dry climates streams lose water to the

ground

C. In dry climates, streams lose water to the

Low

WaterTable

c in dry climates streams lose water to the1

ground

C. In dry climates, streams lose water to the

Low

WaterTable

factors that determine stream discharge
Factors that determine stream discharge:
  • A. Rainfall
  • time lag (between max. rainfall and max. stream discharge)
  • takes time for runoff to reach the stream
b vegetation
B.Vegetation:
  • Increased vegetation blocks overland flow and slows stream response
c drainage basin or watershed
C. Drainage basin orWatershed
  • The land from which the water comes…….
  • That drains into the stream
slide61
Large drainage basin
  • more discharge
  • Small drainage basin
  • less discharge
d type of surface
D. Type of Surface:
  • Rapid runoff if …..
  • ground is paved
  • impermeable (bedrock)
  • frozen
flooding
FLOODING:
  • Stream overflows its channel
  • precipitation rate exceeds infiltration rate
  • hurricane- storm surges
  • impermeable ground
  • (bedrock, frozen, paved,
  • saturated already)
factors affecting runoff and stream discharge1
Factors Affecting Runoff and Stream Discharge

Runoff occurs when

1. rate of precipitation exceeds the

of the earth’s surface.

2. the pore space is

3. the slope of the surface is too great to allow

to occur.

permeability rate

saturated

infiltration

water pollution
Water Pollution

Two main types: point source – pollution from a single point of origin i.e. improper sewage systems, industrial waste.

Nonpoint source– pollution from widely spread areas i.e. rainwater that carries pesticides and fertilizers, runoff from roads and parking lots.

delta
Delta
  • Fan-shaped sediments deposits at the mouth of rivers and called deltas. The Nile, Amazon and Mississippi rivers have well-developed deltas
alluvial fan
Alluvial Fan
  • Alluvial Fans form as the result of sediments being washed down a mountain.