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SW Asia – History (Part 2) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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SW Asia – History (Part 2)

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  1. SW Asia – History (Part 2) SS7H2 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (Middle East) leading to the 21st century. c. Describe how land and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in Southwest Asia (Middle East). d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

  2. c. Describe how land and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in Southwest Asia (Middle East). • After the war that broke out in May 1948 between Israel and the Palestinian Arabs along with their supporting Arab countries, many Palestinians became refugees because Israel won the war. • When Israel won, they took over even more land than had originally been planned • Refugee- a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. • Since 1948 there have been many wars between Israelis and Palestinians (along with support from neighboring countries) • Many Arab countries support the cause of the Palestinians, many of whom still live in refugee camps and parts of Israel that they feel should be a Palestinian state (such as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank). • The Arab-Israeli conflict continues to involve the U.S. and the rest of the world in trying to find a peaceful resolution

  3. c. Describe how land and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in Southwest Asia (Middle East).

  4. Review Questions • What was the outcome of the 1948 War between the new state of Israel and the Arabs living in and around Palestine? • Israel won the war and the new State of Israel was even larger than originally planned. • What is a refugee? • A person who had to leave their home because of a war • What has become of many of the Palestinians who became refugees in 1948? • Many still live in refugee camps or in certain parts of Israel they believe should be Palestinian • What are the main causes for continuing conflict in SW Asia? • Land and religion

  5. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. • The U.S. has political and economic interests in SW Asia. • Oil is the primary economic interest in SW Asia of the United States. • Politically, the U.S. supported the creation of Israel in 1948. • How do you think U.S. support for Israel has affected its political relationships throughout SW Asia?

  6. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. • In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait to try to take over Kuwait’s large oil supplies. • Saddam Hussein was the leader of Iraq that decided to invade Kuwait • Hussein claimed that Kuwait was taking more oil than they were supposed to from shared oil fields. He also blamed the new boundaries formed after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, claiming that Kuwait’s territory should belong to Iraq anyway. • The U.S. was concerned because Kuwait supplies a lot of oil to the U.S. • The United Nations became involved due to agreements to protect member nations when they are attacked without cause.

  7. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. • The U.S. joined the United Nations (U.N.) in sending troops to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. • 39 countries joined in Kuwait’s defense in what was known as the Persian Gulf War, or Operation Desert Storm. • In February, 1991, the Iraqi government agreed to withdraw from Kuwait. • Saddam Hussein remained in control of Iraq.

  8. Review Questions • What is the United States’ main economic interest in SW Asia? • Oil • Why did the U.N. try to stop Iraq from taking over Kuwait in 1990? • The U.N. must intervene whenever any member nation has a conflict with another country. • Who was the leader of Iraq that led the invasion of Kuwait? • Saddam Hussein • Why was the U.S. concerned about Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait? • The U.S. depends on oil imports from Kuwait

  9. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

  10. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. • 9/11/2001 – The World Trade Center in New York City was attacked by a group known as Al-Qaeda. • Al-Qaeda is a terrorist organization; they are a radical (extreme) Muslim group. • One of Al-Qaeda’s goals is to end western influence in SW Asia. The “west” refers mainly to the U.S. and European powers. • The leader of Al-Qaeda at the time of the 9/11 attack was Osama bin-Laden. • The United States invaded Afghanistan as a result of the 9/11 attack. • The U.S. invaded Afghanistan because the radical Muslim government of that country, the Taliban, was allowing al-Qaeda hide and plan operation in the mountains of that country.

  11. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. • In October 2001 the U.S. launched a series of attacks in Afghanistan in an effort to destroy al-Qaeda. • The U.S. government helped to remove the Taliban from power in Afghanistan and continues to help the government become democratic. • Osama bin-Laden was killed by U.S. soldiers in Pakistan on May 2, 2011. • The attacks on 9/11 are related to the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, NOT the war with Iraq.

  12. Review Questions • Who are the Taliban? • A radical Muslim group • Why did the United States bomb and invade Afghanistan in 2001? • They believed the government was offering safety to al-Qaeda. • Who was responsible for the attacks on the U.S. on 9/11/2001? • Al-Qaeda • Who was the leader of al-Qaeda in 2001? • Osama bin-Laden

  13. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

  14. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

  15. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. • In 2003 the U.S. launched an invasion of Iraq. • The U.S. claimed that Iraq, still led by Saddam Hussein, was developing weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), such as nuclear weapons. • The U.S. also believed Iraq to be offering aid to groups such as al-Qaeda. • The U.S. called this military action Operation Iraqi Freedom. • Hussein’s government quickly collapsed. Many Iraqis felt he was a cruel leader. • Hussein was captured and sentenced to death in 2006 for crimes against the people of Iraq. • The U.S. has remained in Iraq attempting to help organize the country’s government and try to stop fighting between different religious and ethnic groups.

  16. Review Questions • Why did the U.S. go to war against Iraq in 2003? • The U.S. saw the Iraqi leader as a threat to peace and U.S. interests in the region • Who was the leader of Iraq at this time? • Saddam Hussein • What was the name given to the U.S. invasion of Iraq? • Operation Iraqi Freedom

  17. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.