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Theory of mind (ToM). Benson et al.1993 Ability to reason about mental states (Moores&Frye, 1991; Perner, 1991; Wellman, 1985) . First-order reasonning : reasoning about another person representation of the world Second-order reasonning : reasoning about another ’s

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Theory of mind

(ToM)

  • Benson et al.1993
  • Ability to reason about mental states
  • (Moores&Frye, 1991; Perner, 1991; Wellman, 1985)

First-order reasonning: reasoning about another

person representation of the world

Second-order reasonning: reasoning about another ’s

representation of yet another person ’s

representation of the world

slide2

Theory of mind

  • Scott & Baron-Cohen, 1996:
  • Ability to attribute the range of intentional states:
  • (beliefs, intentions, desires, etc.) to agents, by way
  • of explaining and predicting an agent ’s actions
  • Dennet, 1978; Premack & Woodruff, 1978
  • Tager-Flusberg & Sullivan, 1995:
  • Ability to interpret one ’s own and others ’ action as
  • causally linked to representational and other kinds of
  • mental states
  • (Bruner, 1986 « landscape of consciousness »)
slide3

Theory of mind

  • Perner, Frith, Leslie & Leekman (1989):
  • Ability to conceive of mental states in oneself
  • and others
  • Ability to attribute false beliefs
  • Factors involving a lack of ToM:
  • difficulties in appreciation of bodily expression of feeling states;
  • difficulties in use of gesture to express mental states
  • difficulties with the pragmatics of langage (joint attention, old/new info.)
slide4

Histoire de 1er niveau

(Benson et al. 1993, adaptée de Hogrefe et al. 1986)

slide5

Histoire de 1er niveau

(Benson et al. 1993, adaptée de

Hogrefe et al. 1986)

slide6

First-order story

One day, Sylvester the Cat and Daffy Duck are in the palyground. Sylvester is playing with his skateboard. Soon he sees Tweety Bird ’s house. He says « I  ’m going to hide my skateboard under the picnic table ». So he hides his skateboard under the picnic table. Then Sylvester says to Daffy, « Don ’t play with my skateboard while I ’m gone ». Then he goes to Tweety ’s bird

house. (Content-Q1:Where did Sylvester hide the skateboard?)

(Content-Q2: Where did Sylbester go when he left the playground?)

now Daffy is alone in the playground because Sylvester is in Tweety ’s bird house. Sylvester cannot see what Daffy is doing […]. Daffy is mad at Sylvester for telling him not to play with the skateboard. Daffy decides to play a trick on Sylvester. Daffy takes the skateboard out from under the picnic table […]

and hides it under the teeter-totter. (Content-Q3: Where did Daffy hide the skateboard?) […] Sylvester comes back to the playground to play with his skateboard.

slide7

Second-order story

Episode 1

One day, Sylvester is on his way to school when he sees Tweety Bird and Goofy in the park. Goofy is selling cookies from his cookie cart.

Sylvester wants to buy a cookie, but he doesn ’t have time because he ’s late for school. […] Goofy says to Sylvester « You can come back to the park after school and buy my cookie after school. I ’ll be here in the park all day long ».

« Then I ’ll come back to the park after school and buy a cookie. » says Sylvester. (Content-Q1: Where would Sylvester go to look for the cookie cart?).

Now, only Tweety bird and Goofy are in the park. Goofer is eating the cookies from the cart. Soon all the cookies are gone, the cart is emplty. Goofy says, « Oh! My cookie cart is empty. Time to go ». Where are you going Goofy? »

« I ’m taking my cookie cart back to the cookie store. I ’m going to stay at the cookie store. I ’ll stay at the cookie store the rest of the day » says Goofy.

(Content-Q2: What did Goofy tells Tweety bird?)

slide8

Second-order story

Episode 2

Tweety bird says goodbye to Goofy. Tweety bird goes back to Love Street. Goofy takes his cookie cart and leaves the park. On the way he passes the school. Sylvester […] sees Goofy. « Where are you going? » says Sylvester.

« I ’m taking my cookie cart back to the cookie store. I ’ll stay at the cookie store with my cart the rest of the day. » says Goofy. « Oh, I  ’m so glad that I know that now. » (Content-Q3: Where did Tweety bird go?

Content-Q4: What did Goofy tell Sylvester when he saw him at school?)

Episode 3

Then Goofy goes to the cookie store. He takes the cookie cart into the store. (Content-Q5: Where would Sylvester look for the cookie cart?

slide9

Histoire de 2ième niveau

(Benson et al. 1993,adapté de

Hogrefe et al., 1986)

A

slide10

Histoire de 2ième niveau

(Benson et al. 1993,adapté de

Hogrefe et al., 1986)

A

B

slide11

A

B

slide12

Histoire de 2ième niveau

(Benson et al. 1993,adapté de

Hogrefe et al., 1986)

A

A

B

slide13

Histoire de 1 er niveau

Q-d ’Ignorance:

Est-ce que Sylvester-le-chat sait où se trouve cachée sa planche à rouler?

Rép: Non

Q-Croyance erronée:

Où Sylvester-le-chat cherchera sa planche à rouler?

slide14

Histoire de 1 er niveau

Q-Justification:

Pourquoi est-ce que tu penses que Sylvester-le-chat ira chercher sa planche à rouler (à

l ’endroit qu ’a mentionné l ’enfant)?

Q-Connaisance:

Est-ce que Daffy-le-canard sait où setrouve la planche à rouler en ce moment?

Rép: Oui

slide15

Histoire de 2 ème niveau

Q-d ’Ignorance:

Est-ce que Tweetie bird sait que Sylvester connaît l ’emplacement du biscuit en ce moment?

Rép: Non

Q-Croyance erronée:

Où tweetie bird pense que Sylvester ira chercher le biscuit?

Rép: Tweetie pense que Sylvester ira chercher le biscuit à son endroit d ’origine (A).

slide16

Histoire de 2 ème niveau

Q-Justification:

Pourquoi tweetie bird pense que Sylvester ira voir (à l ’endroit qu ’a mentionné l ’enfant) pour chercher son biscuit?

Q- Connaissance:

Est-ce que Goofy connaît l ’endroit où se trouve le biscuit?