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Pigeon Fever - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Pigeon Fever. Controversial. Feared. Misunderstood. A pain in the behind. Etiology. Corynebacterium psuedotuberculosis Soil-borne, gram-positive, bacillus, intracellular, facultative anaerobe Cultures in ~48 hours 2 biotypes Biovar equi Multiple strains Biovar ovis Multiple strains.

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etiology
Etiology
  • Corynebacterium psuedotuberculosis
  • Soil-borne, gram-positive, bacillus, intracellular, facultative anaerobe
  • Cultures in ~48 hours
  • 2 biotypes
    • Biovar equi
      • Multiple strains
    • Biovar ovis
      • Multiple strains
epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • 3 general forms
    • External abscesses 96%
    • Internal abscesses 2%
    • Ulcerative lymphangitis 2%
      • Cellulitis with multiple draining

lesions

  • Entry via abrasions and/or wounds to the skin or mucous membranes
    • Summer sores (ventral midline dermatitis)
  • Horses, cattle, humans, sheep, goats
epidemiology1
Epidemiology
  • Transmission
    • Horse to horse contact
    • Insects
    • “Other” vectors
    • Contaminated soil
  • “Contagious”
    • Not as bad as Strangles
    • Absolute quarantine not required
  • Survival times
    • Up to 2 months in hay or shavings
    • More than 8 months in the soil
epidemiology2
Epidemiology
  • Yearly fluctuations
    • Herd immunity
    • Environmental factors
      • Rainfall
      • Temperature
        • Hot, dry
    • Not definitively determined at this time
  • All breeds, all ages are at risk
risk factors
Risk factors
  • Appropriate environmental conditions
    • map review
  • <5 years or age
  • Horses in contact with others on summer pastures
  • Horses housed outside or with access to an outside paddock > stabled horses
pathogenesis
Pathogenesis
  • Incubation period
    • 7 to 28 days
  • Intracellular survival
  • Toxins reduce disease fighting abilities
    • Similar to that produced by the Brown Recluse spider
  • Recovery
    • 2 to 4 weeks
  • Although rare, horses can develop persistent recurrent infections lasting for more than 1 year
external abscesses
External Abscesses
  • Clinical signs
    • Edema - 100% of the time
    • Lameness or stiffness
      • 100% of the time
      • location, location
    • Anorexia - general malaise
    • Fever ~25% of the time
    • Weight loss
    • Non-healing wounds
internal abscesses
Internal Abscesses
  • Clinical signs
    • Consistent with the involved organ or area
    • Changes in lab work
      • Blood
      • Abdominal fluid
      • Thoracic fluid
      • Urine
      • Serology
  • Most commonly found in the liver or lungs
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Index of suspicion
  • Culture
    • Gold standard
  • Ultrasonography
  • Serology
    • Internal abscesses
treatment
Treatment
  • Time
    • “You want me to..............wait?!”
    • Yeah…
      • lets allow the abscess to “cook” for a bit
  • Drainage
    • Ultrasound guidance
      • Determine vascularity, depth, site
treatment1
Treatment
  • Antibiotics
    • Variable
      • Penicillins, Sulfas
      • Rifampin, Doxycycline
  • Antiinflammatories
    • Bute, Banamine, Equioxx, Dexamethasone
  • Hydrotherapy
    • Cold or warm
survival rates
Survival Rates
  • <1% mortality rate associated with external abscessation with treatment
  • 30 to 40% mortality rate associated with internal abscessation with treatment
    • 100% without
  • Ulcerative lymphangitis
    • Similar mortality to internal abscesses
long term recovery
Long-term recovery
  • In some horses, it can take up to 1 year for them to fully recover from the effects of pigeon fever
  • Some horses will never fully recover from the effects of pigeon fever
    • They die
    • They are chronically lame
    • They can suffer irreversible damage to vital organs
slide28

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