2 minerals building blocks of rocks l.
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  1. 2 - MINERALSBuilding Blocks of Rocks • Matter & Atomic Structure • Bonding • Minerals • Physical properties of minerals • Major rock-forming mineral families • Silicates - rock-forming SUPER STARS

  2. Structure of an Atom Protons +/1 Neutrons 0/1 Electrons -/0

  3. Two-dimensional representation of a 12C atom Fig. 3.1B

  4. BONDING - 4 kinds • IONIC - electrical charge • COVALENT - sharing • METALLIC - inner shell covalent bond • INTERMOLECULAR - Van der Waal’s

  5. IONIC BONDING - electrical

  6. Covalent Bonding in Diamond

  7. Covalent Bonds in Water

  8. Carbon Atoms in Graphite

  9. MINERALS - Rock Builders • NATURALLY FORMED • INORGANIC • CRYSTALLINE & SOLID • DIAGNOSTIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

  10. CRYSTALLINE SOLID Galena (PbS)

  11. Atomic Structure of Galena Sulfur Lead DIAGNOSTIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

  12. Ionic Radii & charge of some geologically important ions allows “ionicsubstitution” or SOLID SOLUTION

  13. WHAT FACTORS DETERMINE WHAT MINERAL WILLFORM? • WHAT ELEMENTS ARE AVAILABLE • ABUNDANCE OF EACH ELEMENT • SIZE & CHARGE OF EACH ELEMENT • ENVIRONMENT - SPACE, PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE

  14. Irregular Intergrowth of Quartz

  15. BandedAgate

  16. Crystal Habit Cleavage & Fracture * Striations Hardness Specific Gravity Color Streak Luster Acid Test Identify Minerals by Their Physical Properties

  17. Crystal Form - Constancy of Interfacial Angles Constancy of Interfacial and Angles in Quartz

  18. Cleavage

  19. Striations:Pyrite (Fool’s Gold)FeS)

  20. MOH’S HARDNESS SCALE Examples Brian Skinner

  21. Ruby The Different Colors of Corundum Sapphire

  22. Streak - color of rock power

  23. GALENA (Pb S) - Identified by:crystal habit luster specific gravity hardness

  24. Acid Test

  25. Average Composition of the Continental Crust O O Si Weight Percent Volume Percent

  26. COMMON ROCK-FORMINGMINERAL FAMILIES • NATIVE ELEMENTS - GOLD, COPPER • HALIDES - PRECIPITATES • OXIDES - 1 METAL + OXYGEN • SULFIDES - 1 METAL + SULFUR • SULFATES - (SO4)2- • CARBONATES - (CO3)2- • SILICATES - SUPER STARS!!!

  27. One view of the Silica Tetrahedron

  28. More Views of the Silica Tetrahedron

  29. Linking Silicate Tetrahedra

  30. About Silicates • There are 2 families of silicates: • FERROMAGNESIAN SILICATES - Fe/Mg -> MAFIC MINERALS • NONFERROMAGNESIAN or ALUMINO- SILICATES -> FELSIC MINERALS

  31. Olivine: (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 formed from single silica tetrahedra

  32. Pyroxene Cleavage in the Chain Silicates Amphibole

  33. Framework (example: quartz)

  34. Clay: a sheet silicate SHEET SILICATES

  35. GREEN FELDSPAR

  36. Polished Section ~1 cm

  37. Thin Section

  38. Thin section under ordinary light Magnetite Feldspar Mica Quartz

  39. Thin section under polarized light