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EARTH STUDIES Geosciences 1000. MINERALS: Building Blocks of the Planet Chapter 2 Silicate Structures. ACCORDING TO MOHS HARDNESS SCALE, ORTHOCLASE HAS A HARDNESS OF:. 8 5 6 3. 82.4%. Very Common 95% of All Minerals Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O) bond Easily. SILICATES

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slide1

EARTH STUDIES

Geosciences 1000

MINERALS: Building Blocks of the Planet

Chapter 2

Silicate Structures

slide4

Very Common

  • 95% of All Minerals
  • Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O) bond Easily

SILICATES

Minerals Containing Silicon and Oxygen

O

Si

SINGLE SILICA TETRAHEDRON

SiO4

slide5

Sizes and Charges of the Sixteen Most Common Elements

Ions of Similar Charge & Size Can Easily Substitute for Each Other

true or false
TRUEorFALSE

OXYGEN (O) CAN EASILY SUBSTITUTE FOR

SODIUM (Na)

slide7

ROCK FORMING SILICATES

FERROMAGNESIANS

(Dark Silicates)

Olivine

Augite (Pyroxene)

Hornblende (Amphibole)

Biotite (Mica)

NON-FERROMAGNESIANS

(Light Silicates)

Plagioclase (Feldspar)*

Orthoclase (Feldspar)*

Muscovite (Mica)

Quartz (Only SiO2)

* Feldspars are the most common Silicate in the Earth’s Crust - approximately 60%

Common Mineral Characteristics

  • Dark Colored
  • Contain Significant
  • Iron (Fe) and
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • - High Specific Gravity
  • Light Colored
  • Contain Minor to No
  • Iron (Fe) and
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • - Low Specific Gravity
olivine is a dark colored and relatively dense mineral this is because it is a
OLIVINE IS A DARK COLORED AND RELATIVELY DENSE MINERAL. THIS IS BECAUSE IT IS A:
  • NON-FERROMAGNESIAN MINERAL
  • FERROMAGNESIAN MINERAL
  • A NON-SILICATE MINERAL
  • NONE OF THE ABOVE
slide10

Bowen’s Reaction Series

AUGITE –

SINGLE CHAIN

slide11

Bowen’s Reaction Series

HORNBLENDE –

DOUBLE CHAIN

slide12

SILICATE STRUCTURE

CONTROLS CLEAVAGE

slide13

Bowen’s Reaction Series

BIOTITE –

SHEETS

slide14

Bowen’s Reaction Series

Ca RICH

PLAGIOCLASE

Na RICH

FELDSPAR

slide15

Sizes and Charges of the Sixteen Most Common Elements

Ions of Similar Charge & Size Can Easily Substitute for Each Other

true or false17
TRUE or FALSE

THE POTASIUM RICH FELDESPAR ORTHOCLASE IS NOT PART OF THE CALCIUM/SODIUM FELDSPAR SOLID SOLUTION SERIES

slide18

Bowen’s Reaction Series

MUSCOVITE –

SHEETS

slide20

STUDY GUIDES

BOWEN’S

REACTION

SERIES

SILICATE

STRUCTURES

according to bowan s reaction series
ACCORDING TO BOWAN'S REACTION SERIES:
  • QUARTZ IS THE LAST MINERAL TO CRYSTALIZE FROM A MELT
  • QUARTZ HAS THE LOWEST MELTING TEMPERATURE
  • QUARTZ CONTAINS NO IRON OR MAGNESIUM
  • ALL OF THE ABOVE
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EARTH STUDIES

Geosciences 1000

MINERALS: Building Blocks of the Planet

Chapter 2

Silicate Structures