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Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter 19 – Lecture Notes PowerPoint Presentation
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Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter 19 – Lecture Notes

Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter 19 – Lecture Notes

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Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter 19 – Lecture Notes

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  1. Cardiovascular System: The HeartChapter 19 – Lecture Notes to accompany Anatomy and Physiology: From Science to Life textbook by Gail Jenkins, Christopher Kemnitz, Gerard Tortora

  2. Chapter Overview 19.1 Location & Anatomy 19.2 Heart Chambers 19.3 Heart Valves 19.4 Heart Functions 19.5 Cardiac Conduction System 19.6 ECG 19.7 Cardiac Cycle 19.8 Cardiac Output

  3. Essential Terms cardiology • study of the cardiovascular system apex of heart • bottom point of heart formed by ventricles base of heart • formed by atria, broad superior surface ventricles • muscular chambers of the heart that eject blood atria • collecting chambers of the heart that contract to fill the ventricles

  4. Introduction • heart beats about 100,000 times every day or about 35 million beats per year • left side pumps to systemic circuit • right side pumps to pulmonary circuit

  5. Concept 19.1Location & Heart Anatomy

  6. Heart Anatomy • size ~ 12cm long, 9cm wide at broadest part (5” x 3.5”) • average mass 250g (8 oz) in females • average mass 300g (10 oz) in males • rests on diaphragm • near midline of thoracic cavity • 2/3 of to left of midline • in mediastinum • between lungs • base is directed posteriorly and to right • apex

  7. PERICARDIUM • fibrous pericardium • dense, irregular connective tissue • functions • protect and anchor serous pericardium 2. parietal pericardium • fused to the fibrous pericardium 3. visceral pericardium • also called epicardium pericardial cavity of the serous pericardium is filled with pericardial fluid

  8. Heart Wall • epicardium • visceral layer of serous pericardium • myocardium • cardiac muscle • involuntary • branched cells • intercalated discs • gap junctions • Desmosomes • endocardium • continuous through out cardiovascular system

  9. Concept 19.2Heart Chambers

  10. Right Atrium (RA) • receives blood from • superior vena cava • inferior vena cava • coronary sinus • posterior wall is smooth • anterior wall is rough with pectinate muscles that extend into auricle • divided from left atrium by thin partition called interatrial septum • oval depression in septum called fossa ovalis • remnant of foramen ovale • blood leaves RA through tricuspid valve

  11. Figure 19.4a

  12. Figure 19.4b

  13. Figure 19.4c

  14. Right Ventricle (RV) • receives blood from right atrium • forms most of the anterior surface of heart • contains trabeaculae carneae • raised bundles of cardiac muscle • cusps of tricuspid valve connected to chordae tendineae • chordae tendineae connected to cone-shaped trabeaculae carneae called papillary muscles • divided from left ventricle by interventricular septum • blood ejected to pulmonary valve to pulmonary trunk en route to lungs for gas exchange

  15. Figure 19.3a

  16. Figure 19.3b

  17. Figure 19.3c

  18. Left Atrium (LA) • receives blood from lungs • through 4 pulmonary veins • structurally similar to right atrium • blood passes to left ventricle through the bicuspid (mitral) valve

  19. Left Ventricle (LV) • receives blood from LA • through bicuspid valve • internal structures similar to RV • trabeaculae carneae • chordae tendineae • papillary muscles • interventricular septum • blood ejected into aorta • some aortic blood travels to coronary arteries • remainder passes to arch of aorta • fetal life blood passes from pulmonary trunk to aorta (bypassing lungs) through ductus arteriosus (closes shortly after birth)

  20. Figure 19.4a

  21. Figure 19.4b

  22. Figure 19.4c

  23. Figure 19.1a

  24. Figure 19.1b

  25. Myocardium • atrial walls are thinnest • right ventricle thinner than left ventricle • pumps blood shorter distance • left ventricle walls are thickest • right and left ventricles pump same volume of blood with each beat

  26. Figure 19.4a

  27. Figure 19.4b

  28. Figure 19.4c

  29. Concept 19.3Heart Valves

  30. Valves Of The Heart Ensure one way flow through the heart • Atrioventricular Valves • between the atria & the ventricles • right side - tricuspid value • left - bicuspid or mitral valve • chordae tendineae to papillary muscles • Semilunar Valves • at the beginning of the arteries that leave the heart • 3 cusps per valve • pulmonary semilunar valve • aortic semilunar valve

  31. Concept 19.4Circulation

  32. Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation • systemic circulation • left side of the heart • receives from lungs • pumps to aorta & body tissues • oxygenated blood • pulmonary circulation • right side of the heart • receives blood from the body tissues (veins) • pumps to pulmonary trunk & lungs • deoxygenated blood

  33. Figure 19.6

  34. Coronary Circulation • functional blood supply of the heart • arteries arise from base of aorta and encircle heart in atrioventricular groove • Left coronary artery • runs toward left side of heart • divides into anterior interventricular artery • supplies blood to interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles • Right coronary artery • runs toward right side of heart • divides into marginal artery and posterior interventriculary artery • Marginal artery serves lateral myocardium of right side • Other serves heart apex and posterior ventricular walls

  35. Figure 19.7a

  36. Figure 19.7b

  37. Figure 19.7c

  38. Coronary Veins • AKA coronary sinus • great cardiac vein (anterior) • middle cardiac vein (posterior) • small cardiac vein • anterior cardiac veins

  39. Figure 19.7a

  40. Figure 19.7b

  41. Figure 19.7c

  42. Concept 19.5Cardiac Conduction

  43. Anatomy of Cardiac Conduction System • excitation begins at SA node (100/min_ • arrives at AV node located in interatrial septum, is slowed down (75/min) • AP flows to AV bundle • then enters right and left bundle branches traveling upward • final AP arrives at Purkinje fibers contracting ventricular myocardium from apex up ejecting blood through semilunar valves

  44. Figure 19.8

  45. CONDUCTION SYSTEM Sequence of excitation • sinoatrial (SA) node - spreads to both atria • 90 - 100 action potentials per minute • atrioventricular (AV) node • 40 -50 action potentials per minute • atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His) • 20-40 action potentials per minute • right & left bundle branches • in the interventricular septum • Purkinje fibers • conduction myofibers

  46. Figure 10.17a

  47. Figure 10.17b

  48. Figure 10.17c

  49. Concept 19.6ElectrocardiogramECG or EKG

  50. Electrocardiography • recording of AP transmission through the cardiac conduction system • electrodes placed on body surface • arms and legs and six positions on chest • graphed as series of up and down waves produced during each heartbeat • instrument called electrocardiograph • produces 12 different tracings