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Fungal Diversity. BIOL 1407. Fungal Classification. Traditionally based on: Sexual spore-producing structures Hyphal characteristics Molecular evidence. Deuteromycota ≠ Clade. Imperfect Fungi In past, could not classify No sexual structures produced

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Presentation Transcript
fungal classification
Fungal Classification
  • Traditionally based on:
    • Sexual spore-producing structures
    • Hyphal characteristics
  • Molecular evidence
deuteromycota clade
Deuteromycota ≠ Clade
  • Imperfect Fungi
  • In past, could not classify
  • No sexual structures produced
  • Molecular data should do away with this informal group
chytridiomycota
Chytridiomycota
  • Chytrids
  • Basal group
  • Unicellular to simple mycelium-forming
  • Photo Credit of distinctive two-part rhizoid system of Cladochytrium, 2001, D. J. Patterson and Mark Farmer @ tolweb.org/Chytridiomycota/20517
chytrids
Chytrids
  • Flagellated spores
  • Mostly aquatic
  • Only modern fungal group with flagella
zygomycota
Zygomycota
  • Coenocytic hyphae
  • Ex: Rhizopus, Pilobolus, Arthrobotrys
  • Video Clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1KoKDCwJOJQ&feature=related
  • Another view for fun:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TrKJAojmB1Y
zygomycota1
Zygomycota
  • “Zygote Fungi”
  • Sexual spore-producing structure: Zygosporangium
zygomycota2
Zygomycota
  • In zygosporangium:
    • Heterokaryon
    • Karyogamy
    • Diploid zygote
    • Meiosis
zygomycota3
Zygomycota
  • Asexual spore-producing structure: Sporangium
glomerulomycota
Glomerulomycota
  • Endomycorrhizae
  • Arbuscules within plant root cells
ascomycota
Ascomycota
  • Septate hyphae with pores
  • Examples: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Neurospora, Saccharomyces
ascomycota1
Ascomycota
  • Sexual spore-producing structure: Ascocarp
  • Ascocarp is only dikaryotic structure
  • “Sac Fungi”
ascomycota2
Ascomycota
  • Ascus
    • Karyogamy
    • Diploid zygote
    • Meiosis
  • Eight ascospores
ascomycota3
Ascomycota
  • Asexual spore-producing structure: Conidia
cup fungi
Cup Fungi

Pixie Cups, Geopyxis carbonaria

Photo Credit: Courtesy of Dr. Tom Volk, http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/jun2005.html

basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
  • Septate hyphae with capped pores
  • Long-lived dikaryotic mycelium
  • Examples: Mushroom, rusts, smuts
basidiomycota1
Basidiomycota
  • Sexual spore-producing structure: Basidiocarp
  • Photo Credit: Betsy Maxim, 2008
basidiomycota2
Basidiomycota
  • Basidia  “Club Fungi”
  • Basidiospores
basidiomycota3
Basidiomycota
  • Basidia
    • Karyogamy
    • Diploid Zygote
    • Meiosis
  • Four basidiospores
basidiomycota4
Basidiomycota
  • Asexual spore-producing structure: Rare
  • Only a few produce conidia
  • Most rely exclusively on basidiocarps
  • Photo Credit: Ernst Haeckel, Plate 63, from Kunstformen der Natur (1904), Wikimedia Commons
question1
Question?

Photo Credit: Courtesy of Dr. Tom Volk, http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/sept98.html

the end

The End

Unless otherwise specified, all images in this presentation came from:

Campbell, et al. 2008. Biology, 8th ed. Pearson Benjamin Cummings.