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VIII. And the Blood Pours. A. Road to 2 nd Manassas. Lincoln reshuffles the army In July 1862, Henry Halleck is appointed the new General-in-Chief Combines the armies of Banks, McDowell, and Freemont into the army of Virginia (Gen. Pope commanding) Lee takes a chance Divides the army

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a road to 2 nd manassas
A. Road to 2nd Manassas
  • Lincoln reshuffles the army
    • In July 1862, Henry Halleck is appointed the new General-in-Chief
    • Combines the armies of Banks, McDowell, and Freemont into the army of Virginia (Gen. Pope commanding)
  • Lee takes a chance
    • Divides the army
    • Sends half of his army, under Jackson, around Bull Run Mt. and in behind Pope’s army
    • Lee and Gen. James Longstreet keep Pope occupied
b 2 nd battle of manassas
B. 2nd Battle of Manassas

Day 1

  • Jackson Marches 60 miles in 2 days to pilfer Pope’s supplies- burn the rest at Manassas Junction
  • Jackson moves to Centerville
  • Pope dispatches Union forces under Generals Heintzelman and Reno to pursueJackson
  • Expecting reinforcements, Jackson makes a stand at Groveton
  • Jackson attacksUnion forcesat Browner’s Farm

6 & 7) Sigel & Porter converge onJackson

8) Pope hasJacksoncornered, but Longstreet arrives

slide4
Day 2
  • Pope attacks,Jackson holds his ground
  • Longstreet surprisesPopewith a massive artillery barrage onthe Union left flank

3 & 4) Longstreet slamsthe Union left flankand captures Bald Hill

  • Union forces form a defensive line on Henry House Hill
  • Jackson strikes hard onthe Union right flank
  • Pope orders a retreat to Centerville
c captain s report
General John Pope

70,000

14,154 casualties

Robert E. Lee

55,000

8,397 casualties

CSA Victory

C. Captain’s Report
d road to antietam
D. Road to Antietam
  • Lee invades the north
    • Crosses over the Potomac in Maryland
    • CSA is on the offensive
    • CSA high water mark- this is the closest the CSA come to winning the war
  • South has the advantage in both the east & the west
  • Braxton Bragg replaces the ill Beauregard as overall commander in the west
    • Good friend of Jeff Davis
  • Great Britain was on the verge of recognizing the CSA. They waited to see how Lee would do with his invasion
e special order 191
E. Special Order 191
  • The order laid out the entire plan of attack for the CSA army
    • Lee sent copies to his commanders
    • Jackson had it copied and sent it to his subordinates
    • D.H. Hill’s copy was wrapped around 3 cigars and left at a campsite in Frederick, MD
  • Special Order 191was discovered by Cpl. Barton W. Mitchell of the 27th IN
    • Orders were sent straight to McClellan
    • McClellan now had the power to end the war in the next 24 hours
    • He did nothing for 16 hours
slide8
JEB Stuart informed Lee of the missing orders andMcClellan’s inactionallowed Lee to make adjustments
  • Lee shifted his army to the nearby town of Sharpsburg, MD
  • Jackson had already been sent to capture Harper’s Ferry & rejoin Lee at Sharpsburg
f battle of antietam sharpsburg
F. Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)
  • Gen. Joseph Hooker’s I Corps attackJacksonat Miller’s Cornfield
  • Mansfield’s XII Corps advance on theCSAat the Dunker Church
  • CSA repulseMansfield
  • Sumner advances his men in the west woods whereCSA forces turnthemback
  • Union attackCSA at the sunken road
    • AKA “Bloody Lane”
    • 2200 casualties in 20 minutes
    • 5,600 casualties in 4 hours
slide10

Dunker Church

Bloody Lane

slide11
Gen. Ambrose Burnside wastes 3 vital hours trying to cross Antietam Creek (Burnside’s Bridge)
  • Gen. Rodman finally crosses down stream as Burnside joins him to attackLongstreet’s menon the south flank
  • A.P. Hill arrives from Harper’s Ferry to save the CSA from complete annihilation
g captain s report
George B. McClellan

70,000

12,410 casualties

Robert E. Lee

38,000

13,724 casualties

G. Captain’s Report

Draw

The Bloodiest Single Day of the War

h emancipation proclamation
H. Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincoln decided that he needed to issue a proclamation to free the slaves
  • He decided that he would only free the slaves in thestates of rebellion
    • WHY?
  • Lincoln needed a victory to legitimize his proclamation- Antietam would have to do
  • Issued Sept. 26, 1862, and took effect Jan. 1, 1863
  • The proclamation accomplished two things
    • Changed the focus of the war to slavery
    • Prevented British intervention on behalf of theCSA
i csa advances in the west
I. CSA Advances in the West
  • After Halleck takes command in Washington DC, he establishes 2 major western armies
    • Army of the Tennessee (Grant)
    • Army of the Cumberland (Buell)
  • Bragg now moves into Kentucky and seizes Richmond
  • Bragg, however, allowsBuell to get in between him and theOhio Riverresulting in the Battle of Perryville
  • During the battle, neither Buell nor Bragg know what is going on until the battle is over- the Union win a decisive victory thanks to Gen. Phillip Sheridan
j aftermath of the invasion
J. Aftermath of the Invasion
  • With Lee’s army heading back across the Potomac after Sharpsburg, the North must act quickly to destroy theCSA
  • McClellan instead waited 6 weeks to cross the Potomac and advance onLee- McClellan is at last removed from command
  • Replacing McClellan is Ambrose Burnside
    • He is very reluctant
    • Has a one-track mind
  • General William S. Rosecrans replaces Buell in the west
slide18
Burnside will prove to be the next in a long line of inept Union generals
  • Burnside reorganizes the army into Grand Divisions- this causes utter confusion throughout the ranks
  • The Union will establish 3 armies with 3 objectives
    • Army of the Potomac (Burnside)

- Lee in Virginia

    • Army of the Cumberland (Rosecrans)
          • Bragg south of Nashville
    • Army of the Tennessee (Grant)

- Gen. John C. Pemberton in Vicksburg

k fredericksburg
K. Fredericksburg
  • Burnside sets up camp along the banks of the Rappahannock River
  • Burnside needs to cross the river to catchLee without his full force
  • Burnside decides to wait for pontoon bridges to cross the river
    • Bridges arrive late
    • Burnside loses a fortnight
  • In the meantime, Jackson and Longstreet join Lee to form a 7 mile front with 75,000 men
l battle of fredericksburg
L. Battle of Fredericksburg
  • Under sniper fire, engineers struggle to assemble the pontoon bridges
  • The lower bridges are completed
  • Gen. Franklin attacksCSA right flank. Gen. Pelham’s artillery holds for 2 hours
  • Gen. George Meade’s attack is initially successful, butCSA counterattacksdrive him back
  • Gen. Sumner is ordered to launch wave after wave up Marye’s Heights. Sumner’s men are massacred. Burnside retreats back across the Rappahannock
slide21

Sumner

2

Longstreet

5

1

Meade

4

3

Jackson

m captain s report
Ambrose Burnside

120,000

12,653 casualties

Robert E. Lee

75,000

5,309 casualties

M. Captain’s Report

CSA Victory

n murfreesboro
N. Murfreesboro
  • Typical winter soldier movement
    • Moved very little WHY?
    • Established winter camps
      • Strategic
      • Accessible
      • Easily Defensible
      • Contains resources
  • Bragg set up winter camp at Murfreesboro
    • Major rail junction
  • Rosecrans moves into Murfreesboro to facethe Army of Tennessee
o battle of murfreesboro stones river
O. Battle of Murfreesboro (Stones River)
  • At dawn, Bragg launches his attack at Widow Smith House- turning theUnion right flank
  • Gen. Phillip Sheridan holds offCSA attacksuntil he runs out of ammunition
  • Gen. George H. Thomas forms a new defensive line at a right angle to the old one
  • Col. Hazen’s artillery hold their position
  • Day 1 ends with the Union forming a salient around Rosecrans HQ
  • Gen. John C. Breckinridge attacks in open field and is attacked byUnion artillery
  • Union cross the river and stop theCSA advance
p captain s report
William S. Rosecrans

41,000

12,906 casualties

Braxton Bragg

35,000

11,739 casualties

P. Captain’s Report

Draw

slide26

Rosecrans

3

Thomas

4

Sheridan

Thomas

1

2

Polk

Hardee

Bragg

q chancellorsville
Q. Chancellorsville
  • Union changes commanders
    • “Fighting” Joe Hooker
    • Hard living/Hard drinking
    • Aggressive & Arrogant
  • Hooker plan
    • Leave 2 corps in Fredericksburg to challengeLee’s army
    • 3 corps would move aroundLee’s left and rear
    • Cavalry would perform raids and cutCSA lines of communication
  • Lee responds by not taking the bait & uses the cavalry to screen his position
r battle of chancellorsville
R. Battle of Chancellorsville
  • Lee divides his army
    • Leaves 15,000 in Fredericksburg
    • Takes 45,000 to Chancellorsville
    • Gives Stonewall 26,000 to execute a flank march
  • Jackson begins his 13 mile flank march aroundthe Union
  • Lee distractsHooker with small diversionary attacks
  • Jackson arrives onthe Union flankat 6pm
  • Jackson orders an all-out assault on a surprisedGen. O.O. Howard’s XI corps
slide29
5. XI corps make a final stand at Wilderness Church to buy some time
  • Gen. Dan Sickles retreats to Hazel Grove and repelsCSA advances
  • Sickles is aided by Union artillery at Fariview Cemetery- Union retreats as darknesshalts CSA advances for the day
  • At 9:30pm, Jackson goes out on a scouting mission. He and his group are mistaken forUnion cavalry.His own men shoot and wound Jackson in the left arm. He dies on May 10 from pneumonia- His last words were: “Let us cross over the river and rest beneath the shade of the trees.”
s captain s report
Joseph Hooker

134,000

16,792 casualties

Robert E. Lee

60,000

12,763 casualties + Stonewall Jackson

S. Captain’s Report

CSA Victory