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Blood and Blood Typing

Blood and Blood Typing

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Blood and Blood Typing

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  1. Blood and Blood Typing

  2. Fact or Fiction • The average human body contains 10 liters of blood • False, it contains 5 liters of blood (equal to 1.3 gallons) • The amount of exercise someone gets accounts for varying levels of RBC’s in individuals • True, the body needs more oxygen as it works • Men have more RBC’s per microliter of blood than females • True, in general men have a bigger body mass when compared to women • Blood is purple until it is exposed to oxygen and then it turns red • False, blood is always red regardless of oxygen exposure

  3. Oxygenated blood vs Deoxygenated blood The blood on the left is oxygenated, the right is deoxygenated blood (from a vein)

  4. Functions of Blood • Transportation • E.x. • Regulation • E.x. • Protection • E.x.

  5. Components of Blood • Cells • Red blood cells • White blood cells • Platelets • Blood Plasma • Plasma (mostly water) Which type of tissue is blood classified as?

  6. Components of Blood

  7. Hematocrit • The volume of blood cells in a sample • What should it be? • Plasma (45%) • Cells (55%) • RBC’s 99% • WCB’s and platelets 1%

  8. Formation of Blood Cells(AKA hemopoiesis) • Where does it occur? • Red bone marrow • Trabeculae (spongy bone) • Did RBC formation begin here? • No

  9. Pluripotent Stem cells

  10. Red Blood Cells(AKA Erythrocyte) • Biconcave shape • More surface area • Carry oxygen • O2 binds to hemoglobin • Can vary in number between individuals • Why?

  11. Hemoglobin • Gives whole blood it’s red color • O2 binding site • Binds with O2= Brightred • Releases O2= Dark red

  12. Hypoxia • Prolonged oxygen deficiency • What does this result in?

  13. Red Blood Cell Life Cycle • Average lifespan • 120 days • Rupture (die) when passing through capillaries • Destroyed by macrophages

  14. Red Blood Cell Life Cycle Hemoglobin breaks down • Iron (heme) • Amino acids (globin) • Non-heme part of iron broken down • Biliverdin • Which is further broken down

  15. Why is your poo brown? • Eventually biliverdinis converted into • Urobilin (yellow) • Urine • Stercobilin (pigment) • Feces (poo)

  16. Why are certain vitamins so important? • They are need to synthesize hemoglobin • B12 • Folic acid • Help absorb iron • Vitamin C • Anemia • Too few RBC’s or hemoglobin

  17. Erythropoiesis • Formation of RBC’s • Usually occurs as RBC’s are destroyed • Disruption in balance causes hypoxia • Causes more RBC’s to be made • More EPO is released

  18. Erythropoietin(EPO) • Hormone made by kidneys • It Stimulates RBC production • More RBC’s = more O2 sent to tissues • Blood Doping • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7KZxIR1t-o

  19. Blood Concept Map Terms • Protect/transport/regulate • RBC’s • Hemoglobin • Erythropoiesis • Oxygen • Homeostasis • Leukocytes • Bone Marrow • Nucleus • Spleen • Biconcave disk • Water • Plasma

  20. White Blood CellsAKA Leukocytes • Function to protect the body Five different types • Granulocytes (Granules in cytoplasm) • Neutrophils • Eosinophils • Basophils • Agranulocytes(no granules) • Monocytes • Lymphocytes

  21. Neutrophil • First to respond to infection • Active phagocytes • Destroy invaders by releasing enzymes • Present in pus of wounds • 60% of WBC

  22. Monocyte • Migrate into infected tissues • Become macrophages • Destroy invaders and clean up cellular debris

  23. Eosinophils • Have enzymes that combat against allergic reactions • Mainly attack parasites • Ex. Worms • What does a high count mean? • Allergic reaction Or • Parasitic infection

  24. Basophils • Involved in inflammatory • Liberate histamine and heparin

  25. Lymphocytes B cells • Develop into plasma cells • Produce antibodies • Destroy bacteria and their toxins

  26. Lymphocytes T Cells • Attack • Viruses • Fungi • Transplanted cells • Cancer cells • Some bacteria

  27. Lymphocytes Natural Killer cells (NK) • Attack • Variety of microbes • Tumor cells

  28. Blood Concept Map Terms • Albumins • Antibodies • Eosinophils • Defend against disease • Globulins • Hemostasis • Inflammatory Reaction • Monocyte • Platelets • Phagocyte

  29. WBC Life Span • Only phagocytize a certain amounts • Live for days or hours • Die off faster during infection • Why?

  30. PlateletsAKA Thrombocytes • Help blood clot by sticking to the lining of blood vessels

  31. Hemostasis • Sequence of events that occur to stop bleeding • Involves • Coagulation • (thickening of blood) • Clotting of blood

  32. Three Events in Hemostasis • Blood vessel Spasm • Plate plug forms • Blood coagulation

  33. Blood Clot Story Board

  34. Brainpop • What are the two components to your blood type? • What is hemolysis? • What is the Rh factor? • What is the most common blood type in Americans? • What is the least common blood type in Americans?

  35. ABO Blood Groups • What are the four blood types? • A • B • AB • O

  36. Whole Blood • Antegens • Type of antigen on RBC will determine blood type • E.x • Antibodes • Non-matching antibody found in plasma • E.x.

  37. Rh Factor • Makes blood type either + or – • Rh+ • Rh antigen present • Rh- • No Rh antigen

  38. Blood Typing

  39. Antibodies • Type of WBC • Defends the body • Found in plasma • React with antigens

  40. Agglutination • Occurs when matching antibodies and antigens bind • What happens if that occurs in a RBC?

  41. ABO Blood Types Chart

  42. Compatibility of blood types • Can a person with A positive blood donate to a person with A negative blood? Why or why not? • Why can’t a person with B blood donate blood to a person with type A blood?

  43. When does the Rh factor effect blood compatibility? • When a ________ type mixes with a _________ • Most common in _________ • Why is this dangerous?

  44. Organ and Tissue Rejection