Section 1 • Coping strategies in sport
Coping Defined • Constantly changing cognitive and behavioral effort to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taking or exceeding resources of the person (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
Coping Strategies • Problem-focused Coping Strategies. • Emotion-focused Coping Strategies.
Coping Styles • Approach Style of Coping. • Avoidance Style of Coping.
Conceptual Framework for Coping Strategies and Styles • Athletes cope with stress by either approaching or avoiding the situation. • Within this framework, they will either adopt an active problem solving strategy or an emotion-focused strategy. • Study Figure 9.2.
Measurement of Coping Skills • Several different inventories measure coping skills. • The Coping Style in Sport Survey (CSSS) measures coping skills consistent with the two dimensional framework proposed by Anshel et al. (1997). See figure 9.2.
The Dynamic Nature of Coping Styles and Strategies • Dispositional Hypothesis. • Dynamic Hypothesis.
Factors that Enhance the Generalizability of Coping • Recognition of stimulus generality. • Broad application of coping skill. • Personal significance of coping application. • Internal locus of control of coping skill. • Learned resourcefulness.
Factors that Influence Coping Effectiveness • Sex of athlete. • Match between stressor and coping strategy. • Utilizing an approach coping strategy. • Self-determination and intrinsic motivation.
Coping Strategies Used by Elite Athletes • Elite athletes tend to use an approach style of coping, with the majority of the strategies being problem or action focused. • The vast majority of coping strategies may be categorized under the heading of psychological training, physical training, strategizing, and somatic relaxation.
Section 2 • Self-talk as an intervention
Self-talk Defined • Overt or covert personal dialogue in which the athlete interprets feelings, perceptions, convictions, and gives him/herself instructions and reinforcement.
The 4 W’s of Self-talk • Where • When • What • Why
The Where and When of Self-talk • Self-talk takes place most often during competition, with during practice/training a distant second. • Self-talk takes place equally either before or during competition. • Used more by individual sport athletes. • Used more by skilled athletes.
The What of Self-talk (Content) • The structure of self-talk describes the use of cue words, phrases, and sentences. • The use of task instruction is usually specific as opposed to general in nature. • Categories of self-talk are of three types.
Categories of Self-talk • Task specific statements relating to technique. • Encouragement and effort. • Mood words (“hard” “blast” “go”)
To be effective, self-talk must be: • Brief and phonetically simple. • Logically associated with the skill. • Compatible with the sequential timing of the task to be performed.
The Why of Self-talk • The why of self-talk describes its role and function. • The two main functions or components are: - Cognitive component - Motivational component
Cognitive Component of Self-talk • Assist in skill development. • Skill execution. • Improve performance.
Specific Uses (Why) of Self-talk • Building and developing self-efficacy • Skill acquisition • Creating and changing mood • Controlling effort • Focusing attention or concentration
Section 3 • Relaxation strategies used in sport
The Anxiety/Stress Spiral • There is only one way out of the anxiety/stress spiral, and that is to reverse the process by reducing the anxiety and tension. • Relaxation procedures can effectively reduce tension and anxiety associated with sport.
Factors Necessary to Elicit the Relaxation Response • Mental Device • Passive Attitude • Decreased Muscle Tone • Quiet Environment
Deep Breathing • Important component of all relaxation techniques. • Types of Breathing. - Chest breathing - Abdominal breathing
Progressive Relaxation • Edmund Jacobson. • Tense a muscle before relaxing it. • Systematic tensing and relaxing of all muscles, beginning with upper limbs. • After training, the relaxation response can be elicited in a matter of minutes.
Autogenic Training • Self statements to achieve relaxation: 1. Heaviness in arms and legs. 2. Warmth in arms and legs. 3. Warmth in chest and reduced heart rate. 4. Calm and relaxed breathing. 5. Warmth in the solar plexus area. 6. Sensation of coolness on forehead.
Meditation • Athlete uncritically focuses attention on a single thought, sound or object. • Use of a mental device or “mantra.”
Biofeedback Training • Biofeedback training uses instruments to help people control responses of the autonomic nervous system.
Biofeedback Instrumentation • Skin Temperature. • Electromyography (EMG) • Electroencephalogram (EEG) • Galvanic skin response (GSR) • Heart rate • Blood pressure
Section 4 • Arousal Energizing Strategies for Sport
Matching Hypothesis and Intervention • Interventions selected to relax or energize the athlete are matched to the specific symptoms presented by the athlete.
Categories of Energizing Strategies • Team Energizing Strategies. • Individual Self-Energizing Strategies.
Team Energizing Strategies • Team Goal Setting • Pep Talks • Bulletin Boards • Publicity and News Coverage • Fan Support • Coach, Athlete, and Parent Interaction • Precompetitive Workout
Immediate Self-Energizing Strategies • Individual Goal Setting • Self-Talk • Attentional Focus • Imagery • Self-Activation
Importance of Immediate Self-Energizing Strategies • “The athlete has to be able to turn it on and then turn it off in a short period of time.” (Dan O’Brian, U.S. 1996 Olympic Decathlon Champion)