Chapter 9-3 The Growth of European Kingdoms
Objectives • Explain England and France in the High Ages • List important English and French Rulers • Analyze the impact of the Magna Carta and changes in government
England in the High Middle Ages • Angles and Saxons invaded in the fifth century. • King Alfred the Great united kingdoms of England in the 9th century, and since then England has been ruled by Anglo-Saxon kings.
The Norman Conquest • October 14,1066: an army of heavily armed knights led by William of Normandy land on the coast of England and defeat King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. • William then crowned King of England • Norman knights received fiefs and swore an oath of loyalty to King William. • Norman ruling class spoke French, but marriage to Anglo-Saxon created new English culture. • Normans took over society, did the Domesday book. • Census was taken for the first time since the Romans, and a system of more complete taxation developed.
Henry II • Power of the English monarchy was enlarged during the reign of Henry II (1154-1189) • Increased the number of criminal cases and property cases tried in the Kings court. • By expanding power to the royal court, he expanded the Kings power. • Under Henry, royal courts were found throughout England, a body of common law began to replace law codes that varied from state to state.
Henry wanted to punish clergy in royal courts. • Thomas à Becket, archbishop of Canterbury and the highest ranking English cleric said only the church could try clerics. • Henry publicly expressed the desire to be rid of Becket (“Who will rid me of this priest?”) • Four knights murdered Becket, which outraged the public and Henry stopped his attack on the church.
The Magna Carta and the First Parliament • Many nobles resented the growth of the kings power and rose in rebellion under King John. • At Runnymede in 1215, John was forced to put his seal on a document of rights called the Magna Carta. • Magna Carta stressed the king/vassal relationship of mutual respect. • This document would later be used to back the idea that a monarchs power was limited, not absolute.
Under Edward I in the 13th century, representative government, called Parliament, emerged. • Parliament was made up of two knights from every county, two people from every town and all the nobles and bishops. • Eventually, nobles and church found the House of Lords and townspeople the House of Commons. • The Parliament granted taxes and passed laws.
The French Kingdom • In 843, the Carolingian Empire was divided into three major sections (east, west, and middle) • Western Frankish lands would form the Kingdom of France. • 987: Last Carolingian king dies, and the nobles chose Hugh Capet as king, establishing the Capetian dynasty. • The Capetians had the title, but little power. • The area that they controlled only included Paris, known then as the Île-de-France and many dukes were more powerful then the Kings.
Reign of Philip II August from 1180-1223 saw monarchs gain power. • Waged successful war against England, who ruled French territories. • Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine. • After Philip II, land acquisition was a common theme. • Louis IX: fair king, very religious. • Philip IV: called Philip the Fair, strengthened monarchy, established beaucracy, created a French parliament called Estates-General. • 1302- First meeting of the estates-general.
Objectives: • Explain the Holy Roman Empire • List the people of Central and Eastern Europe • Identify important Russian Leaders
Holy Roman Empire • Eastern Frankish lands came to be known as Germany. • Best known Saxon King of German- Otto I. • In return for protecting the Pope, Otto was crowned Roman Emperor in 962. • This title was not used since Charlemagne.
Struggles in Italy • As emperors, German kings attempted to rule both German and Italian lands. • Frederick I and Frederick II neglect German lands and focus on Italy. • Frederick I planned to get most of the empires money from Italy, considering it the center of a “holy empire”, which is where we get the name Holy Roman Empire. • Frederick I attempted to conquer northern Italy led to conflict with the pope and the people of Northern Italy. • Pope feared losing the papal states, people were use to independence. He was defeated in 1176 by an alliance between the pope and Italians • Frederick II wanted a centralized state in Italy, he was faced with the same problems and had the same fate as Frederick I.
Effect on the Empire • Due to the time spent in Italy, German emperors left Germany in the hands of powerful lords and could not regain power. • Nobles ignored the emperors and created their own kingdoms. • In the end, the German Holy Roman Emperors had no control over Germany or Italy. • Unlike France and England, neither Germany or Italy created a national monarchy in the middle ages, but focused on small, independent states. • These states did not become unified until the 19th century.
Central and Eastern Europe • Slavic people divide into western, southern, and eastern Slavs. • Western: form Polish and Bohemian kingdoms. • German monks had converted the Czechs in Bohemia and the Slavs in Poland to Christianity by the 10th century. • Non-Slavic kingdom of Hungary also converted. • Poles, Czechs, and Hungarians all accepted Christianity and became a part of the Roman Catholic Church and its Latin culture.
Eastern Slavic people of Moravia were converted to Orthodox Christianity. • Cyril and Methodius, two brothers who were Byzantine missionaries began converting in 863. • The southern Slavic people included the Serbs and Bulgarians, and they too embraces Eastern Orthodoxy. • The Croats, another group, followed the Roman Catholic Church. • Cultural life of the southern and eastern Slavic people were linked to the Byzantine states.
Development of Russia • Eastern Slavic people settled in territories of present-day Ukraine and Russia, and they encountered Swedish Vikings, which the natives called Rus. • This is where the name Russia is devised. • Oleg, a Viking leader, settled in Kiev in the 10th century and created a Rus state. • His successors extended control over the eastern Slavs, married Slavic women, and culture assimilated. • Growth of Kiev attracted Byzantine missionaries. • Vladimir, a Rus ruler, married the Byzantine emperors sister and made the state religion Eastern Orthodox Christianity in 988.
Mongol Rule • By the 13th century, the Mongols conquered Russia. • Occupied lands, required Russian princes to pay tribute to them. • Alexander Nevsky, prince of Novgorod, defeated the German invading army in northwestern Russia in 1242. • The khan, leader of the western Mongol empire, rewarded Nevsky with the title grand-prince. • His descendents would become princes of Moscow and eventually the leaders of Russia.
Homework • Page 301 1,2,4-6 • Study for Quiz!