slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Word segmentation: effects of the native language and of the native dialect Thierry Nazzi Laboratoire Psychologie de la PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Word segmentation: effects of the native language and of the native dialect Thierry Nazzi Laboratoire Psychologie de la

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 38

Word segmentation: effects of the native language and of the native dialect Thierry Nazzi Laboratoire Psychologie de la - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 148 Views
  • Uploaded on

Word segmentation: effects of the native language and of the native dialect Thierry Nazzi Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception CNRS - Université Paris 5.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Word segmentation: effects of the native language and of the native dialect Thierry Nazzi Laboratoire Psychologie de la' - cree


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Word segmentation: effects of the native language and of the native dialectThierry NazziLaboratoire Psychologie de la PerceptionCNRS - Université Paris 5

slide2

Word segmentation: speech is continuous i l y a û l a pî d â l j a r d î- infants, like adults, hear few words in isolation (< 10%)- word boundaries are not clearly and systematically marked at the acoustic level

slide4

Word segmentation: emergence - Familiarization with 2 words: bike and feet or cup and dog- Test with 4 passages: …bike…: His bike had big black wheels. The girl rode her big bike. Her bike could go very fast. The bell on the bike was really loud. The boy had a new red bike. Your bike always stays in the garage. …feet… …cup… …dog…Results: Emergence of a preference for the passages containing the familiar(ized) words between 6 and 7.5 months

slide5

Word segmentation: use of various cuesCues used initially (around 8 months):- prosody: Sw > wS (Jusczyk, Houston & Newsome, ’99) DOCtor gui / TAR gui / TARis- distributionalinformation regarding syllable order(Saffran, Aslin & Newport, ’96)Important:Distributional information initially used within prosodically-defined units

slide6

Word segmentation: use of various cuesOther cues:- coarticulation (Johnson & Jusczyk, ‘01)- phonotactic information : dra vs. dba (Mattys & Jusczyk, ’01a)- allophonic information : nitrate vs. night rate(Jusczyk, Hohne, & Bauman, ‘99)- pitch accent (Nazzi, et al., ‘05)- nature of initial phoneme (Mattys & Jusczyk, ’01b;Nazzi et al., ‘05)

slide7

Word segmentation: crosslinguistic differences?- From the results on English, it appears that some cues are specific to a language/a language class: phonotactic information allophonic information prosody Prediction: there should be developmental consequences of contrasting language phonologies  Need to conduct cross-linguistic studies

slide8

Word segmentation: crosslinguistic differences?Regarding prosody segmentation prior to stressed syllable/trochaic units: - OK for English, Dutch, German - not for FrenchIndeed, in French - reduced contrast btw stressed/unstressed syllables - if stress in French, it is word final

slide9
Word segmentation: crosslinguistic differences?Hypothesis:Prosodic segmentation will differ across rhythmic-based classes of languages
slide10

Word segmentation: crosslinguistic differences? This hypothesis is based upon 3 sets of studies:- Existence of 3 rhythmic classes: - stress-based (English, Dutch, German…) - syllable-based (French, Spanish, Italian…) - mora-based (Japanese, Tamil…)- Adults from these different classes segment words differentlyCutler, Mehler, Norris & Segui, 1986; Mehler, Dommergues, Frauenfelder & Segui, 1981; Otake, Hatano, Cutler & Mehler, 1993; but see Content, Meunier, Kearns & Frauenfelder, 2001)- Newborns discriminate these rhythmic types Nazzi, Bertoncini, & Mehler, ’98

slide11

Word segmentation: rhythmic typesMore specific hypothesis:Segmentation according to the rhythmic unit of the native language stress unit for English, Dutch  syllable for French mora for JapaneseData obtained for English consistent with this hypothesisIs there any evidence - from languages other than English? - from French?

slide12

Segmentation in French: previous researchSegmentation by Parisian French infants - monosyllables: around 8 months (but not at 11 mos; Gout, ’01) - bisyllables: no evidence between 8 and 11 months (Gout, ’01)

slide13

Segmentation in FrenchGout (’01) results:compatible with idea that there are developmental consequences of contrasting language phonologies Role of the syllable?Our goal:Test the segmentation of bisyllabic words in FrenchAre they segmented - as whole units? - as independent syllables?

slide14

Segmentation in FrenchNazzi, Iakimova, Bertoncini, Frédonie & Alcantara (2006)Prediction for the segmentation of bisyllabic words in FrenchInitially, syllables of bisyllabic words segmented independently - non-recognition of the whole word - recognition of each syllable independentlyLater, bisyllabic words segmented as whole units - recognition of the whole word - non-recognition of each syllable independently ?

slide15

Segmentation in FrenchStep 1When do bisyllabic words start being segmented as wholes?Three age groups tested: 8-month-olds 12-month-olds 16-month-olds16 infants per age group

slide16

Segmentation in French: whole words- Familiarization with whole words 2 conditions: putois/bandeau vs. toucan/guidon- Test with the 4 associated passagesUn toucan mangeait des grains de blé. Elle aimait beaucoup le vieux toucan. Il trouvait mon toucan des plus beaux. Le très joli toucan était célèbre. Ce toucan savait bien chanter. Il est devenu un si grand toucan.Un putois a encore essayé de fuir. Il voulait voir mon putois du zoo. Mais il n’a trouvé que le vieux putois. Ce putois n’était pas très content. Elle pensait au joli putois. Alors le grand putois s’est énervé.Mon bandeau se plie très facilement. Elle veut un joli bandeau de cette sorte. Il faudrait jeter le vieux bandeau. Tu sais que ce bandeau me manque beau-coup. Il ne trouve pas de grand bandeau. Un bandeau est toujours à la mode.Mon guidon est original. Il est plus résistant qu’un vieux guidon. La selle et ce guidon me plaisent beaucoup. Ce joli guidon doit être repeint. Il faut qu’un guidon soit bien fixé. Elle aurait voulu un grand guidon.

slide17

Segmentation in French: whole wordsNo effect offamiliarization condition 7+/9- 8+/8- 11+/5- n.s. n.s. p = .02

slide18

Segmentation in French: whole words- No evidence of whole word segmentation - at 8 months: as predicted by our hypothesis that infants start segmenting on the basis of the syllabic unit - at 12 months: consistent with Gout (2001)- Evidence of whole word segmentation at 16 months

slide19

Segmentation in French- Step 2Evidence for the segmentation of individual syllables at 12 months? Start with final syllables (more accented in French)Three age groups tested: 8-month-olds 12-month-olds 16-month-olds16 infants per age group

slide20

Word segmentation in French: final syllables- Familiarization with final syllables 2 conditions: toi/can vs. deau/don- Test with the 4 associated passagesUn toucan mangeait des grains de blé. Elle aimait beaucoup le vieux toucan. Il trouvait mon toucan des plus beaux. Le très joli toucan était célèbre. Ce toucan savait bien chanter. Il est devenu un si grand toucan.Un putois a encore essayé de fuir. Il voulait voir mon putois du zoo. Mais il n’a trouvé que le vieux putois. Ce putois n’était pas très content. Elle pensait au joli putois. Alors le grand putois s’est énervé.Mon bandeau se plie très facilement. Elle veut un joli bandeau de cette sorte. Il faudrait jeter le vieux bandeau. Tu sais que ce bandeau me manque beau-coup. Il ne trouve pas de grand bandeau. Un bandeau est toujours à la mode.Mon guidon est original. Il est plus résistant qu’un vieux guidon. La selle et ce guidon me plaisent beaucoup. Ce joli guidon doit être repeint. Il faut qu’un guidon soit bien fixé. Elle aurait voulu un grand guidon.

slide21

Segmentation in French: final syllables No effect offamiliarization condition 7+/9- 11+/5- 9+/7- n.s. p = .01 n.s.

slide22

Segmentation in French: final syllables - No evidence of final syllable segmentation - at 8 months: “delay” compared to English-learning infants - at 16 months: congruent with whole-word segmentation effects in English- Evidence of final syllable segmentation at 12 months as predicted by our hypothesis that infants start segmenting on the basis of the syllabic unit

slide23

Segmentation in French- Step 3Evidence for the segmentation of individual syllables at 12 months? Our proposal states that at the age at which final syllables are segmented, infants should also be able to segment initial syllables (less accented in French)One age group tested: 12-month-olds(but 2 conditions)16 infants per condition

slide24

Segmentation in French: initial syllables- Familiarization with initial syllables 2 conditions: pu/tou vs. ban/gui- Test with the 4 associated passagesUn toucan mangeait des grains de blé. Elle aimait beaucoup le vieux toucan. Il trouvait mon toucan des plus beaux. Le très joli toucan était célèbre. Ce toucan savait bien chanter. Il est devenu un si grand toucan.Un putois a encore essayé de fuir. Il voulait voir mon putois du zoo. Mais il n’a trouvé que le vieux putois. Ce putois n’était pas très content. Elle pensait au joli putois. Alors le grand putois s’est énervé.Mon bandeau se plie très facilement. Elle veut un joli bandeau de cette sorte. Il faudrait jeter le vieux bandeau. Tu sais que ce bandeau me manque beau-coup. Il ne trouve pas de grand bandeau. Un bandeau est toujours à la mode.Mon guidon est original. Il est plus résistant qu’un vieux guidon. La selle et ce guidon me plaisent beaucoup. Ce joli guidon doit être repeint. Il faut qu’un guidon soit bien fixé. Elle aurait voulu un grand guidon.

slide25

Word segmentation in French: final syllables- Note: initial syllables were less accented than final syllables; thus, finding an effect with initial syllables might be more difficult

slide26
Word segmentation in French. 12-month-olds initial syllable No effect of familiarization condition 9+/7- n.s.
slide27

Discussion.Explaining the negative result for the initial syllableHypothesis:Initial syllable segmented, but not recognized because- it is “weakly” represented due to its reduced saliency - there are marked acoustic difference between the isolated and embedded forms of the initial syllables(note: syllabic frequencies are higher for initial than for final syllables, c.f. lexique)Test:Replication of the experiment on the initial syllable using spliced-out syllables during familiarization

slide28

Word segmentation in French. 12-month-olds spliced-outinitial syllable No effect of familiarization condition 11+/4- p = .02 initial syllable segmented but more difficult to recognize

slide29

Word segmentation in FrenchAt 12 months Data compatible with - the hypothesis that there are crosslinguistic differences in the way segmentation procedures emerge in different languages- and more specifically: the hypothesis of the syllable as unit of early prosodic segmentation in French

slide30

Word segmentation in FrenchAt 16 months Data compatible with - the segmentation of words as whole units- by that age, infants can probably use cues to word segmentation other than the early prosodic cue an explanation for the elusive syllable in French? (Content, Meunier, Kearns & Frauenfelder, 2001)(but test with ERPs)

slide31

Word segmentation in FrenchAt 8 months Data compatible with - (slight?) delay in the emergence of segmentation abilities in French-learning infants (see also Dutch infants) - note that delay is more marked for the segmentation of bisyllabic words, which relies on cues other than prosodic cues

slide32

Follow-up: towards an exploration of dialectal differencesData with French Canadian infants (Polka & Sundara, 2003)Segmentation of whole bisyllables at 8 months Canadian French dialect Parisian French dialectPossible factors involved in Parisian/Canadian French difference:- Language/dialect effect? Parisian French more difficult to segment than English and Canadian French- Speech style? Degree of Infant-directedness?

slide33

Segmentation of Polka’s Parisian French stimuli by Parisian 8-month-olds? Familiarization: 2 words béret/surprise vs. devis/guitareTest: 4 passages 16 8-month-olds 7+/9- n.s. No effect of familiarization condition

slide34

Segmentation of bisyllabic words: Polka Parisian French stimuli- different from Canadian French infants using the same ID stimuli- similar to Parisian French infants using the less intonated stimuli Again, this suggests the non-segmentation of whole bisyllabic words from fluent speech by young Parisian French infants, even when using more pronounced ID stimuli- more of a dialect/language effect(ongoing: specify when Parisian French infants start segmenting these more pronounced ID stimuli)

slide35

Segmentation of Polka’s Parisian French stimuli by Parisian 8-month-olds? Familiarization: 2 passagesbéret/surprise vs. devis/guitareTest: 4 words 23 8-month-olds 15+/8-p = .03No effect of familiarization condition

slide36

Segmentation of bisyllabic words: Polka Parisian French stimuliOrder effects, different from English. Why?- possibility to use distributional information in passages-first paradigm, which is necessary for Parisian-French infants to “go beyond” syllabic segmentation and “retrieve” bisyllabic word forms?- differences in (number of) processes measured during the test phase? see Kooijman et al. (2005) ERP study on word segmentation in DutchFrench dialect effects: - more intonational variations in Canadian French: induces an earlier use of this cue by Canadian French infants? see Nazzi et al. (2005)

slide37

Main findings (1) There are crosslinguistic differences in the pattern of emergence of segmentation abilities(2) This pattern of emergence seems predicted by the rhythmic type of the native language, with reliance on the rhythmic unit: - English-learning 8mos: trochaic unit - French-learning 12mos: syllable(3) Dialect differences between Parisian- and Canadian-French infants Important follow-up: generalize these findings to other languages(see Hohle & Weissenborn for German)

slide38

Thanks toGalina Iakimova

Carmela Alcantara

Josiane Bertoncini

Scania de Schonen

Séverine Frédonie

Linda Polka

Megha Sundara

Supported by: Fyssen Foundation, European Science Foundation, Ministère de la Recherche