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Presentation on The development of good management practices within ELT by Alemmari Almushahi Dept of English Language teaching Near East University Student number:20132876 To: Prof. Dr. Index. The Core Principles of Professional Development

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Presentation on The development of good management practices within ELTby AlemmariAlmushahiDept of English Language teachingNear East University Student number:20132876To: Prof. Dr.
  • The Core Principles of Professional Development
  • Assessment within Professional Development Activities
  • Coaching and mentoring
  • The Growth Targets for CoachingThese five enduring principles call for teachers:
  • Materials evaluation
  • Effective Instructional Practices
  • Instructional Framework for Teaching Reading to ELLs
  • Developing Language Proficiency Skills
  • What EEL Teachers Need to Know and Be Able to Do?
  • It will be seen that development of good management practices within ELT refers to processes and practices that improve the job-related knowledge, skills, and attitudes of school employees. Ideally, these skills, knowledge, and attitudes should assure the intellectual, physical, emotional, and social development and well-being of each student within the school, regardless of their linguistic, cultural, economic, or national background.
the core principles of professional development
The Core Principles of Professional Development
  • Principle 1: Build on foundation of skills, knowledge, and expertise:

Professional development must build upon the current foundation of basic skills, knowledge, and areas of expertise of the educational personnel involved.

The individual(s) providing the activity must determine the current level of expertise, the needs of participants, and develop appropriate materials and activities.

the core principles of professional development cont d
The Core Principles of Professional Development cont’d
  • Principle 2: Engage participants as learners: Professional development should include rich and varied opportunities that engage educational personnel as learners and offer the opportunity to apply new skills and knowledge.

Professional development is effective when the materials are presented in a hands-on manner using techniques that suit various learning styles. In addition, practitioners need time to try out new methods in a safe environment before either moving to another topic or attempting the method in the classroom.

the core principles of professional development cont d1
The Core Principles of Professional Development cont’d
  • Principle 3: Provide practice, feedback, and follow-up. Professional development should offer educational personnel opportunities for

(1) practicing the new skills, strategies, and techniques; (2) providing feedback on performance;

(3) continuing follow-up activities.

Principle 3 reinforces the precept that information about skills and knowledge must be presented to educational personnel in a manner that allows them to link new information to their current knowledge and skills, and allows them to construct their own meanings.

the core principles of professional development cont d2
The Core Principles of Professional Development cont’d
  • Principle 4: Measure changes in teacher knowledge and skills. Successful and effective professional development should be manifested by measurable increases in participant knowledge and skills.

The evaluation of a participant’s knowledge and skills is essential to the effectiveness of the professional development program.

the core principles of professional development cont d3
The Core Principles of Professional Development cont’d
  • Principle 5: Measure changes in student performance. Professional development should be linked to measurable outcomes in student performance, behaviour, and/or achievement.

Direct link to student outcomes is necessary to determine what types of professional development activities are effective within specific contexts.

assessment within professional development activities
Assessment within Professional Development Activities
  • Assessment of PD program implementation refers to the necessity of ensuring that the personal development has merit and does provide requisite information to participants in a manner that is appropriate and useful.

Methods for eliciting such information from participants include:

  • checklists;
  • rating scales;
  • interviews, focus groups, and surveys.
coaching and mentoring
Coaching and mentoring
  • Identifying professional development models that result in accelerated academic and linguistic development among English language learners is a pressing educational concern, especially in an era demanding that teacher performance be directly linked to student achievement.
  • Coaching provides teachers with a “chain of assistance in their efforts to implement research-based practices.
the growth targets for coaching
The Growth Targets for Coaching
  • Teachers want to understand more deeply how their instructional decisions and practices impact student opportunities for meaningful learning.

Coaching is goal-directed, performance-based (observable), and centered on student learning. It calls for teachers to move away from predominately whole-class, teacher-directed instruction to the use of multiple and differentiated small group activity centers.

these five enduring principles call for teachers
These five enduring principles call for teachers:

(1) Focus on assisted and sustained language use by students and literacy development across the curriculum.

(2) Ensure that learning experiences cognitively challenge students with clear expectations, feedback, and assistance.

(3) Hold regular, small group, goal-directed, evidence-based, student-dominated conversations with students.

(4) Collaboratively create shared representations of learning with students.

(5) Purposefully connect new academic concepts directly to the knowledge and expertise students already possess from home, school, and community.

materials evaluation
Materials evaluation
  • Given the average age of students, they should find materials attractive and enjoy using them.
  • Each question should evaluate something.
  • Each question should evaluate one basic idea.
  • Each question should be answerable.
  • Each question should be reliable in that other evaluators should be able to interpret it to mean same idea.
materials adaptation
Materials adaptation
  • Good teachers should always be adapting the materials they are using to the context in which they are using them in order to achieve the optimal congruence between materials, methodology, learners, objectives, the target language and the teacher’s personality and teaching style.
effective instructional practices
Effective Instructional Practices
  • Explicit Instruction:

Explicit instruction is defined as task-specific, teacher-led instruction that demonstrates how to complete a task. The routines and consistent language used in explicit teaching provide ELLs with clear, specific, and easy-to-follow procedures as they learn not only a new skill or strategy but also the language associated with it.

effective instructional practices cont d
Effective Instructional Practices cont’d
  • Opportunities to Practice:

Effective teachers provide ELLs additional practice and review. This can occur during instruction by giving students multiple opportunities to use the target skill and receive feedback or by engaging students in choral response and all-response activities.

effective instructional practices cont d1
Effective Instructional Practices cont’d
  • Adjusting Instructional Language:

For instruction to be meaningful, English Language Learners (ELLs) must understand the essence of what is said to them. Teachers can adjust the level of their English vocabulary during instruction by using clear, explicit language when they introduce a new concept. By using consistent language, effective teachers enable ELLs to focus on the task rather than trying to figure out the meaning of new words.

instructional framework for teaching reading to ells
Instructional Framework for Teaching Reading to ELLs
  • Whenever possible, ELLs should be taught reading in their primary language.
  • Instruction in the primary language develops first-language skills, promotes reading in English, and can be carried out as ELLs are concurrently learning to read other academic content in English.
  • ELLs should be helped to transfer what they know in their first language to learning tasks presented in English because transfer is not automatic.
instructional framework for teaching reading to ells cont d
Instructional Framework for Teaching Reading to ELLs cont’d
  • Similar approaches can be used to teach in both the first and second language. However, instructional adjustments or modifications will continue to be necessary for some ELLs until they reach sufficient mastery of academic English to permit them to be successful in mainstream instruction.
  • ELLs need intensive oral English language development (ELD), especially vocabulary and academic English instruction.
developing language proficiency skills
Developing Language Proficiency Skills
  • Make text in English more comprehensible by using texts with content that is familiar to students:

When ELLs read texts with more familiar material (for example, stories with themes and content from the students’ cultures), their comprehension improves.

  • Build vocabulary in English:

Visual representation of concepts, not just a language-based explanation, provides students with additional support in learning vocabulary words.

developing language proficiency skills cont d
Developing Language Proficiency Skills cont’d
  • Use the primary language for support.

Introduce new concepts in the primary language prior to the lesson in English; then, afterward, review the new content again in the primary language (“preview-review”). Focus on the similarities and differences between English and students’ native language.

what eel teachers need to know and be able to do
What EEL Teachers Need to Know and Be Able to Do?
  • They need to understand of the basic constructs of bilingualism and second language development.
  • Nature of language proficiency.
  • Role of first language and culture in learning.
  • Demands that mainstream education places on culturally diverse learners.
  • Capacity to make academic content accessible.
  • Ability to integrate language and content instruction.
what eel teachers need to know and be able to do cont d
What EEL Teachers Need to Know and Be Able to Do? Cont’d
  • Respect for and incorporation of students’ first language in instruction.
  • Understanding of how differences in language and culture affect students’ classroom participation.
  • Needs and characteristics of students with limited formal schooling.
  • The professional development offered to teachers and other educational staff often fails to meet teachers’ needs; they are usually brief, infrequent, and mandated by the ministries of education; they focus on topics selected by administrators; and allows little opportunity to practice, receive feedback, or to participate in follow-up activities. Effective professional development must be ongoing, interesting, and meet the needs of participating personnel.
  • Catherine J. Casteel and Keira Gebbie Ballantyne, (2006). Professional Development in Action: Improving Teaching for English Learners, 2011 Eye St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC
  • August, D. & Shanahan, T., eds. (2006). Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Calderón, M. & Marsh, D. (1998). Applying Research on effective biuingual instruction in a multi-district inservice teacher training program. NABE Journal, 12, 133-152.
  • Gallimore, R., Ermeling, B., Saunders, W. & Goldenberg, C. (2009). Moving the learning of teaching closer to practice: Teacher education implications of school-based inquiry teams. The Elementary School Journal, 109, 537-553.
  • Goldenberg, C. & Coleman, R. (2010). Promoting Academic Achievement Among English Learners : A Guide to the Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Brian Tomlinson, (2012). Materials development for language learning and teaching, Cambridge University Press

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