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Training Program. MARPOL73/78 Annex VI- Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution From Ships Lesson 3. Dec.2006. Reg. 15 Volatile Organic Compounds – VOC. Vapour Return System (VRS). To vapour recovery or incineration. Several terminals have system for vapour return.

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reg 15 volatile organic compounds voc
Reg. 15 Volatile Organic Compounds – VOC
  • Vapour Return System (VRS)

To vapour recovery or incineration

Several terminals have system for vapour return.

VRS required for vessels calling VRS terminals, Annex VI

reg 16 shipboard incineration
Reg. 16 Shipboard Incineration
  • Incinerators installed on or after 1 January 2000 to be Type Approved according to Res. MEPC. 76(40)
  • INCINERATION PROHIBITED:
    • Annex I, II, III Cargo Residues,
    • PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls)
    • PVC (Poly Vinyl Chlorides)
reg 16 shipboard incinerations
Reg. 16 Shipboard Incinerations
  • Initial survey:
    • Testing of control systems
    • Available manufacturer’s operating manual

Reg. 17 Reception Facilities

  • Ensure the provisions of adequate facilities:
    • For reception of ozone-depleting substances
    • For reception of exhaust gas cleaning residues
reg 18 fuel oil quality
Reg. 18 Fuel Oil Quality
  • Free form inorganic acids
  • Not include chemical waste
  • Within NOx and Sox limits
  • Bunker Note to be kept on board for 3 years
  • Sample to be kept until substantially consumed and not less than 12 months
reg 18 fuel oil quality1
Reg. 18 Fuel Oil Quality
  • Fuel sample storage:
    • The retained sample should be kept in a safe location, outside of ship’s accommodation, where personnel would not be exposed to vapours which may be released from the sample.
    • The retained sample should be stored in a sheltered location where it will not be subject to elevated temperatures, preferably at a cool/ambient temperature, and where it will not be exposed to direct sunlight.
iapp initial survey
IAPP Initial Survey

Ships keel laid before 1st January 2000:

  • Documentation
    • List of ozone-depleting substances
    • Log-book for operation of fuel oil systems when operating low-sulphur fuel oils
    • Bunker Delivery Note file.
    • Fuel oil change over drawings, if applicable
    • Vapour collecting manual, if applicable
  • Survey
    • Survey of items above.
iapp initial survey con
IAPP Initial Survey (con.)

Engines delivered onboard after 1st January 2000:

  • Documentation, additional items
    • EIAPP Certificated for diesel engines
    • Approved technical Files for diesel engines
    • Type Test certificates for incinerators
    • Operating manual for incinerators.
  • Survey
    • Survey of items above.
    • May include opening up one unit per type of engine onboard to verify stamping according technical file.
flag and port state survey
Flag and Port State Survey

Important:

To make sure you are ready for inspection always…

  • Flag administration may instead implement unscheduled inspections as an alternative to Annual surveys
  • Inspectors will scrutinise onboard documentation andrecords
    • Sampling procedures,
    • Change-over procedures,
    • ER log books,
    • BDN’s,
    • Sample inventory log books, etc.
    • The fuel oil sample inventory.

However, the EU has proposed a more frequent testing of both onboard retainedsamples and also tank samples to verify compliance.

USCG

more concern fuel oil quality
More Concern… … Fuel Oil Quality
  • Currentlyprimarily a matter between owners/managers (and charterers) and suppliers, it will under Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78 also become astatutory matter.
  • Limiting the sulphur content of fuel oil.
operational issues
Operational issues
  • Elaborationand clarifications relating to Regulation 18 arefound in Resolution MEPC. 96(47)“Guidelines for the sampling of fuel fordetermination of compliance with Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78”.
  • To be used as requirements by port state inspectors.
what is bdn stand for
What is BDN stand for?
  • BDN = Bunker Delivery Note.
  • Sample of the forms:
fo standards
FO Standards
  • Various national standard institutions
    • ASTM (USA)
    • BSI (UK)
    • D.I.N.(Germany)
    • ISO 8217 (International Standard Organization)
  • Based on the BSI(BS MA 100) specification and input from CIMAC.
  • ISO first edition of international standard for marine fuel, was published in 1987 as ISO 8217
  • The latest edition is ISO 8217 second edition 1996
iso 8217 standard distillate fuel
ISO 8217 Standard_distillate Fuel
  • Have an effect
    • On fuel quality
    • On the way marine fuels are purchased
    • Tips: (ISO 8217)
      • Did not list test methods for sediment, ignition quality or aluminum contents;
      • REPRESENT A POSITIVE AND NECESSARY DEVELOPMENT
      • No ensure fuel oil quality nor contamination levels in fuels as delivery.
  • To ensure that ship operation with reliable, economical, and trouble-free operation of diesel engine on fuel oil, Followings are necessary:
    • Care in ordering, in sampling, in fuel treatment, upgrading and operation
    • Care in engine maintenance and operation,
    • Care in other support system
iso 8217 standard distillate fuel1
ISO 8217 Standard_distillate Fuel

Extract from ISO 8217 – Specification of Marine Fuel Oils 1996

iso 8217 standard residual fuel
ISO 8217 Standard_Residual Fuel

Extract from ISO 8217 – Specification of Marine Fuel Oils 1996

important properties and effects optional
Important Properties and Effects (optional)
  • 3.1 Density
  • 3.2 Viscosity
  • 3.3 Viscosity Index
  • 3.4 Flash Point
  • 3.5 Pour Point
  • 3.6 Carbon Content
  • 3.7 Ash Content
  • 3.8 Water
  • 3.9 Sulphur
  • 3.10 Vanadium
  • 3.11 Aluminium & Silicon
  • 3.12 Sodium
  • 3.13 Compatibility
  • 3.14 Total Sediment
  • 3.15 Iron
  • 3.16 Calorific Value
  • 3.17 Thermal Stability
  • 3.18 Burnability, Ignition Quality etc.
  • 3.19 Bottom Sediments and Water
  • 3.20 Boiling Ranges
  • Reference materials
  • Density and temperature
  • Viscosity and Viscosity Index
  • Flash point
  • Pour point
  • Carbon content
  • Sulphur content
density and temperature
Density and temperature
  • D. Varies with T.
  • Density usually quoted at 15ْْC
  • Density alone is not directly measure of fuel quality, nor always associated with high viscosity
  • The fuel density is important for reasons as followings:
        • A check on actual weight of supplied/received,
        • Specific fuel consumption figures
        • Optimum gravity disc selection for purification equipment
viscosity
Viscosity
  • Varies with temperature
  • Viscosity alone is not a measure of fuel quality.
  • One should be noted that the viscosity quoted on the fuel delivery note very often only refers to the maximum viscosity ordered,
    • e.g. IF380 is 380 centistokes at 50oC and the actual viscosity of the fuel delivered may have a different viscosity.
  • The fuel density is important for reasons as followings:
    • Determine the price (traditionally in marine industry)
    • Pumping viscosity (usually within 1000 cSt.)
    • Viscosity at injector to be maintained within limit (8-27 cSt.)
viscosity conversions
Viscosity Conversions
  • It is always not true that they are of poor quality than the lower viscosity.
  • There are instances on record where the fuel delivered has completely separated out to form a layer of cutter stock floating on top of the residual - these extreme cases were due to malfunctions of the blending equipment. Less severe, but more common, are fuels which stratify,
    • Forexample, a “nominal” 380 cSt at 50oC fuel was found to vary between 360 cSt and 550 cSt, the density varied between only 0.980 & 0.984.
flash point
Flash Point
  • Usually to a minimum flashpoint of 60 degree C
  • Lower flash point may led the risk of forming an explosive mixture with air in storage tank.
  • In the view of class and company regulations concerning maximum allowable tank temperature in relation to flashpoint,
  • Hence, it is important to have an accurate knowledge of flashpoint TO AVOID THE RISKS.
pour point
Pour Point
  • Indicationof wax content
  • In practice, means the temperature at which wax crystallisation prevents the oil from flowing.use as a guide to the lowest permitted bunker storage temperature to avoid handling difficulties
    • Wax has a low coefficient of heat transfer, and therefore if a high pour point fuel is allowed to cool and become solid in storage tanks it is virtually impossible to re-liquefy by subsequent heating.
    • Doublebottom and wing tanks containing high pour point fuel should be maintained at a temperature above the pour point of the oil and the fuel used as quickly as possible.
pour point1
Pour Point
  • ! In the absence of any written confirmation of pour point temperature on the bunker receipt/delivery note the delivery temperature may be a guide in that if bunkers are delivered at an abnormally high temperature there may be a possibility that it has a high pour point.
sulphur
Sulphur
  • Dependsentirely on its crude oil origin and the amount of distillate removed, in practice contents of up to 4 to 5% weight can be expected.
  • Cannotbe removed by conventional pre-treatment systems
  • Disadvantage of higher content
    • Air pollution ---- Annex VI
    • Formsulphuric acid which has a dew point in the region of 140/150oC, and which will condense therefore on various metal surfaces, including portions of the cylinder liner during normal operation.
sulphur1
Sulphur
  • Disadvantage of higher content
    • Sulphur trioxide combines with combustion ashes lowering their melting points and causing them to become more adhesive to metal surfaces.
    • Eachpercentage increase in sulphur content of the fuel oil the calorific value reduces by approximately 80 Kcal/kg.

Useof high quality alkaline lubricating oils decreases the risk of corrosion

  • Precaution of very low content 0.5% weight and below (bunker in US and South American occasionally)
    • May cause, Inengines using highly alkaline cylinder oils, high cylinder and piston rings wear rates