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MARPOL Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil. an introduction to the international regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil. Tim Wilkins Regional Manager Asia-Pacific Environmental Manager. Image courtesy of Dampskibsselskabet NORDEN AS. MARPOL Annex I

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marpol annex i regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil

MARPOL Annex IRegulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil

an introduction to the international regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil

Tim Wilkins

Regional Manager Asia-Pacific

Environmental Manager

Image courtesy of Dampskibsselskabet NORDEN AS

slide2
MARPOL
  • Annex I
      • Regulations and Chapters
      • Fundamentals
        • Operation
        • Construction
1 marpol
1. MARPOL

Torrey Canyon 1967

  • 1959 US built, 60,000 dwt, , Li. flagged
  • Jumboised to 120,000 dwt
  • Cargo 120,000 ts of BP oil for Milford Haven
  • Navigational error caused grounding ripping open 6 tanks
  • 31,000,000 gallons of oil leaked
  • Oil spread along the sea between England and France
1 marpol4
1. MARPOL

Amoco Cadiz 1978

  • 1974 built Amoco Cadiz carrying 227,000 tonnes of crude oil
  • ran aground off the coast of Brittany, France at 10:00 p.m. on March 16, 1978
  • The whole cargo spilled out as the breakers spilt the vessel in two, progressively polluting 360 km of shoreline
  • At the time this was the largest oil spill by tanker ever registered.
1 marpol5
1. MARPOL

The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)

  • as amended by the 1978 Protocol (MARPOL 73/78)

Just Oil…

  • 1954 OILPOL Convention
    • Operational
      • Discharge zones (50nm and 100ppm)
      • Reception facilities
1 marpol6
1. MARPOL

Not just Oil…

MARPOL Annexes I – VI

  • Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil
  • Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
  • Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
  • Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
  • Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
  • Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
1 marpol7
1. MARPOL

MARPOL Implementation

  • 1967 Torrey Canyon
  • 1973-1978 Amoco Cadiz et al.
  • MARPOL ’73 and the Protocol ‘78
  • MARPOL enters into force October 1983
    • Annex I and II - 1983
    • Annex III – 1992
    • Annex V – 1988
    • Annex IV – 2003
    • Annex VI - 2005
2 annex i regulations and chapters
2. Annex I regulations and chapters

39 regulations in 7 chapters to regulate oil pollution from ships (not just tankers):

  • Ship/Tanker design
  • Ship/Tanker operation
2 annex i regulations and chapters9
2. Annex I regulations and chapters

39 regulations in 7 chapters to regulate oil pollution from ships (not just tankers):

2 annex i fundamentals operation
2. Annex I fundamentals; Operation

Discharge of oil at sea (1):

all discharges of oil are prohibited unless certain criteria are satisfied

  • Machinery space (bilge and sludge)
    • All ship types
    • Machinery space
      • Bilge waste: oily water from the bilges
      • Sludge: waste residue from the filtration of fuel oil
    • Ship must be en route
    • Oily mixture must have been processed through the oil filtering equipment
    • Oil content of the mixture does not exceed 15 parts per million (ppm)
    • Oily mixture is not mixed with cargo residues (see later)
2 annex i fundamentals operation11
2. Annex I fundamentals; Operation

Discharge of oil at sea (2):

all discharges of oil are prohibited unless certain criteria are satisfied

  • Cargo space (slops)
    • Oil tankers
    • Must be more than 50nm from nearest land (also defined)
    • 30 litres per nautical mile
    • Discharged through the Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME)
    • Maximum discharge quantity on a ballast voyage should not exceed 1/30,000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part
2 annex i fundamentals operation12
2. Annex I fundamentals; Operation

Discharge of oil at sea (3):

all discharges of oil are prohibited unless certain criteria are satisfied

Oil discharge monitoring and control systems (tankers)

Regulations 31 & 32

Oil filter equipment (all ship types)

Regulation 14

  • Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME)
  • Oily Water Separators (OWS)

Extensive review of requirements underway at IMO

2 annex i fundamentals operation13
2. Annex I fundamentals; Operation

Special Areas (1):

  • All the previous discharge criteria regulates outside a Special Area
  • Regulation 1 - “A Special Area is a sea area where for recognized technical reasons in relation to oceanographic and ecological condition and to the particular character of its traffic…special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution by [oil] is required.”
  • And as such there shall be NO discharge whatsoever of cargo residues/slops from oil tankers
2 annex i fundamentals operation14
2. Annex I fundamentals; Operation

Special Areas (2):

those listed in Annex I:

  • Baltic Sea 1983
  • Black Sea 1983
  • Red Sea not in effect
  • Mediterranean Sea 1983
  • Gulf of Aden not in effect
  • Antarctic 1992
  • Gulfs area Aug 2008
  • Northwest European waters 1999
  • Southern South African waters Aug 2008
  • Oman area of the Arabian Sea not in effect
2 annex i fundamentals operation15
2. Annex I fundamentals; Operation

Reception facilities:

Regulation 38

Oil loading terminals, repair ports and ports in which ships have oily residues to discharge

  • Port state obligation
  • Alleged inadequacies
2 annex i fundamentals construction
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

How many hulls…

2 annex i fundamentals construction17
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

Exxon Valdez 1989

OPA 90

  • U.S phase-out from 1995 to 2010 (except for tankers with double bottoms (db) or double sides (ds), tankers less than 5,000 gross tons and tankers that call at LOOP or Designated Lightering Areas)

IMO amendments to MARPOL 73/78 (adopted 3/1992, entry into force 7/1993)

  • Newbuildings to be double-hulls
  • Single-hulls to be sbt/pl or hbl from 25 years with phase-out at 30 years old or by 2015
2 annex i fundamentals construction18
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

Erika 1999

IMO amendments to MARPOL 73/78 (adopted 4/2001, entry into force 9/2002)

    • Category 1 phase-out up to 2007
    • Categories 2&3 phase-out at 26 years up to 2015

BUT

  • Flag state may allow newer single-hulls to continue to 25 years (subject to CAS)

HOWEVER

  • Port state can deny such extended single-hull tankers from entering its ports
2 annex i fundamentals construction19
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

Oil Tanker Categorization

Category 1 pre-MARPOL (pre-1982)

Category 2 MARPOL (post-1982)

Category 3 smaller tankers (5,000-20,000/30,000dwt)

2 annex i fundamentals construction20
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

Prestige 2001

EU Regulation 1726/2003 (entry into force 21/10/2003)

  • Category 1 phase-out up to 2005
  • Categories 2&3 phase-out up to 2010
  • No Heavy Grade Oils (HGO) in single-hulls from 21/10/2003
  • CAS from 2005 for all Categories 2&3 over 15 years old

IMO amendments to MARPOL 73/78 (adopted 12/2003, entry into force 5/4/2005)

  • 13G
  • Category 1 phase-out up to 2005
  • Categories 2&3 phase-out up to 2010
  • CAS required for Categories 2&3 over 15 years old
2 annex i fundamentals construction21
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

Prestige 2001

BUT

  • Flag state may extend Categories 2&3 up to 2015 or 25th anniversary (whichever earlier)
  • Flag state may extend Categories 2&3 with db or ds which may trade up to 25th anniversary of delivery (even past 2015)

HOWEVER

  • Port state may deny entry of either such flag-state-extended tankers
  • 13H - Double hull required from 5/4/05 for Heavy Grade Oil as cargo for tankers 5,000 dwt and above, and for tankers 600-4,999 dwt (except single-hulls built with db and ds) from anniversary date in 2008
2 annex i fundamentals construction22
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

Prestige 2001

BUT

  • Flag state may allow single-hull 5,000 dwt and above with db or ds to continue with HGO up to 25th anniversary (even beyond 2015)
  • Flag state may allow single-hull 5,000 dwt and above to continue with HGO between 900 and 945 kg/cubic meter until 25th anniversary or 2015 whichever is earlier, subject to CAS
  • Flag state may allow single-hull 600-4,999 dwt to continue with HGO until 25th anniversary or 2015 whichever is earlier

HOWEVER

  • Port state may deny entry of any of the above mentioned flag-state-extended tankers carrying HGO
2 annex i fundamentals construction23
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

2 annex i fundamentals construction24
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

2 annex i fundamentals construction25
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

2 annex i fundamentals construction26
2. Annex I fundamentals; Construction

Tank (ship) construction:

2 annex i fundamentals miscellaneous
2. Annex I fundamentals; Miscellaneous

Other key elements to MARPOL Annex I:

  • SOPEP
    • Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
  • Certification
    • International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (IOPPC)
  • Surveys
    • Special Surveys (Enhanced Special Survey)
    • Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS)
      • CAS (Applies to oil tankers of 5,000 dwt and above)
      • CAS will be performed at intervals of up to 5 years and 6 months
      • First CAS to be undertaken at first renewal (ie special) survey or intermediate survey after 5/4/05 of every tanker which has reached its fifteenth year
      • CAS is to be harmonised with ESP
2 annex i fundamentals miscellaneous28
2. Annex I fundamentals; Miscellaneous

Other key elements to MARPOL Annex I:

  • Oil Record Book (ORB)
    • Regulation 17 and Appendix III
    • Part 1: Machinery space operations
    • Part 2: Cargo space operations
  • Crude Oil Washing (COW)
  • Fuel tank protection – all ships 2010
  • Pump room protection – double bottom in tankers after 1/1/2007
  • Oil outflow performance in case of accident – collision or grounding
2 annex i fundamentals miscellaneous29
2. Annex I fundamentals; Miscellaneous

Other key elements to MARPOL\Annex I:

  • FPSOs/FSUs
    • FPSOs and FSUs are not oil tankers and are not to be used for the transport of oil except that, with the specific agreement by the flag and relevant coastal States on a voyage basis,
    • Conversion of an oil tanker to an FPSO or FSU or vice versa should not be construed as a major conversion as defined in regulation 1(8)
    • There are five categories of discharges that may be associated with the operation of an FPSO or FSU:
      • machinery space drainage;
      • offshore processing drainage;
      • production water discharge;
      • displacement water discharge; and
      • contaminated seawater from operational purposes such as produced oil tank cleaning water, produced oil tank hydrostatic testing water, water from ballasting of produced oil tank to carry out inspection by rafting.