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MARPOL – Annex VI. Control of Air Pollution from Ships and its Current Revision process Dr. Tim Gunner, Technical Consultant, Intertanko. Why MARPOL Annex VI?. Emission Gases from Ships Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) – create Ozone Sulphur Oxides (SOx) – create acidification

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marpol annex vi

MARPOL – Annex VI

Control of Air Pollution

from Ships

and its Current Revision process

Dr. Tim Gunner, Technical Consultant, Intertanko

why marpol annex vi
Why MARPOL Annex VI?
  • Emission Gases from Ships
    • Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) – create Ozone
    • Sulphur Oxides (SOx) – create acidification
    • Hydrocarbons (HC) – gas, soot and some particulates
    • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
    • Refrigerant Gases
  • Non Annex VI
    • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – is a GHG
    • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • The concentration of exhaust gases is variable according to the engine type, engine settings and fuel type.
imo regional developments
IMO & REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTS
  • Annex VI entered into force in 2005
  • Baltic Sea - SECA from May 2006
  • North Sea/English Channel - SECA from November 2007
    • EU Directive – from August 2007
  • Major Revision of MARPOL Annex VI – Commenced 2006 and due for completion 2007/8
  • European Sulphur Directive governs emissions in port (0.1% S at berth)
  • California (CARB) new regulations (0.5% S) which take effect in 2007
  • Various ports are facing new local regulations on Ship Emissions, which are governing future expansion and development
the regulations in annex vi
The Regulations inAnnex VI
  • There are 19 Regulations but the following Regulations will impact Vessel operation
    • Regulation 12 – Ozone Depleting Substances
    • Regulation 13 – NOx emissions
    • Regulation 14 – Sulphur Oxide emissions
    • Regulation 15 – VOC emissions
    • Regulation 16 – Shipboard Incinerators
    • Regulation 18 – Fuel Oil Quality control
regulation 13 nox
Regulation 13 – NOx
  • For all Engines (except emergency engines) installed on ships after 1st January 2000 of more than 130 kW must comply to this Regulation.
  • The NOx emission is limited to 17 g/kW h for engines operating at 130 rpm but reducing to 9.8 g/kW h for 2000 rpm. Between these revs the limit is designated by equation:

45 * n(-0.2) g/kW h

  • Existing engines can become a “new” engine if substantially modified.
proposed revisions of regulation 13 nox
Proposed Revisions of Regulation 13 - NOx
  • Tiered approach to further NOx reductions – Tier 2 from date of revisions coming into force - 2010, and Tier 3 from 2015
  • Lower limit NOx emissions (30 - 40% reduction discussed for first tier – 2010)
  • Further NOx emission limitation on all existing engines, particularly those installed after Jan. 2000
  • NECAs – NOx emission control areas (Tier 3 levels for these areas?)
regulation 14 sox
Regulation 14 - SOx
  • The Worldwide Sulphur cap on fuel oil is set at 4.5%.
  • Sulphur Emission Control areas (SECAs)
    • Areas – Baltic, North Sea and English Channel
    • Sulphur Level of fuel – 1.5% or;
    • Alternatively use an exhaust gas cleaning system
    • Ship must have cleared all pipe systems and tanks and be using low sulphur fuel on entry
proposed revisions of regulation 14 sox
Proposed Revisions of Regulation 14 - SOx
  • Reduction of SOx emissions
    • Reduction of the Global Cap – e.g. to 3.00%
    • Reduction of the SECA Cap – e.g. to 1.00% or 0.50%
  • Correction for the reporting and measurement standard to two decimal places for Sulphur content (Bunker Delivery Note criterion).
new parameter for air pollution control
New Parameter for Air Pollution Control
  • Particulate Matter Emission control
  • What are these Particulates?
    • Sulphates from SOx
    • Nitrates from NOx
    • VOC from uncombusted hydrocarbons
    • Heavy Metals e.g. Vanadium, Nickel, Aluminium, Sodium, Calcium, Zinc; from Heavy Fuel oil and Lube Oil
    • Soot – from the aromatics in heavy fuel oil
particulate matter regulation and control methods
Particulate Matter Regulation and Control Methods
  • At present this subject matter has not been fully debated within the working group
  • Issues to be confronted:
    • Size of the Particulate to be regulated – 10 micron or 2.5 micron
    • Extent of limitation of Particulate emission
    • Methods for control of Particulate emissions – e.g. Scrubbers and/or Filters
    • Storage and Disposal of Particulates
    • Control and verification of reduced emissions
current regulation 18 fuel oil quality
Current Regulation 18 – Fuel Oil Quality
  • “Fuel oil shall be blends of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum refining”
  • “Fuel oil shall be free from inorganic acid”
  • “Fuel oil shall not include any added substance or chemical waste which either:
    • Jeopardises the safety of ships or adversely affects the performance of the machinery, or
    • Is harmful to personnel, or
    • Contributes overall to additional air pollution”
regulation 18 fuel oil quality
Regulation 18 – Fuel Oil Quality
  • Bunker Delivery Note (BDN)
    • Becomes a Statutory document
    • Must be kept on board for 3 years for inspection and a copy taken for further examination.
    • Must contain all data required by appendix V
      • Name and IMO number of vessel
      • Port
      • Date of Commencement of delivery
      • Details of fuel oil supplier
      • Product name, quantity , Density at 15 0C and Sulphur content % m/m
      • A declaration that fuel supplied meets Regulation 14 and 18.
regulation 18 fuel oil quality15
Regulation 18 – Fuel Oil Quality
  • Fuel Oil Sampling
  • A sealed sample meeting the requirements in associated guidelines has to given to the ship by the bunker supplier
  • For each individual BDN a sample has to be taken at the vessel’s bunker receiving manifold. (see procedure in associated guidelines)
  • The sample label has to be signed by both the bunker supplier’s representative and the vessel’s Chief Engineer.
  • The sample size shall be not less than 400 mls
  • The sample is not to be used for any commercial purpose
  • The sample is to be retained on board for at least 1 year for inspection by PSC as required
intertanko s suggestions to imo blg working group
INTERTANKO’s suggestions to IMO BLG working Group
  • The use of distillate fuels, with a global Sulphur content cap introduced using a two tiered programme, as follows:
    • from [2010], a maximum of 1.00% S content
    • for ships’ engines installed on and after [2015], a maximum [0.50]% Sulphur content
  • A Global Sulphur Emission Control Area
  • If the above two issues were considered feasible, then the provisions for checking and monitoring compliance with Regulation 14 and 18 should be revised accordingly.
intertanko s suggestions solutions for the revision
INTERTANKO’s SuggestionsSolutions for the Revision
  • Automatic reduction of NOx due to fuel quality by 10 – 15% and allows engine manufacturers to develop more “in engine” technologies.
  • Removes the requirement for storage of three fuels and the changeover safety problems for SECA entry
  • Removes the requirement to regulate Particulate Matter
  • Removes the risk of Regional Regulation
  • Regulates one type of acceptable fuel quality for all ships and aligns shipping with other forms of transport
  • Simplifies verification and control