Energy Profile of India Dr. Kamal Kant Dwivedi Counselor (S&T) Embassy of India Washington DC, 20008
India at a Glance Area : 3.287 million sq. km. Population : 1.03 billion GDP : $ 500 billion ($ 3 trillion in PPP) (Grew by 8.2% in 2003 and by 2020 it is set to grow to $ 2 trillion) Installed capacity : 120,000 MW Annual demand growth : 10-12% Projected demand by 2012 : 212,000 MW (estimated cost $ 200 billion) Energy output : 421.6 mtoe (563 in 2007 & 724 in 2012) Total consumption : 501.9 mtoe Grid size : over 200,000 ckm transmission lines over 5 billion ckm distribution lines Consumption/person : 494 kg of oil equivalent
Hydro Power Potential of India Note on potential: Estimates of Small Hydro potential vary. According to one estimate, it could exceed 10,000 MW. Grid quality power potential from wind, small hydro and biomass is estimated to be about 50,000 MW.
Renewable energy potential of India Source : http://mnes.nic.in/ach1.htm
Solar Energy • India receives solar energy equivalent to over 5000 trillion KWhr/year, which is far more than the total energy consumption of the country. • The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 -7 KWhr/m2 depending upon the location.
Wind Power Program • There is an estimated Gross Potential of 45,000 MW • Centre for Wind Energy Technology has been established. • Wind resource Map is given here (w/m2 = Watt per square meter):
NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME India has been pursuing a 3-stage Nuclear Power Program. • The first stage - Pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and associated fuel cycle facilities. • The second stage - Fast breeder reactors (FBRs) backed by reprocessing plants and plutonium based fuel fabrication plants. • The third stage - thorium-uranium-233 cycle. Utilization of thorium. Presently, 14 Nuclear Power Plants are operational in India with a total capacity of 2770 MWe. Nine more reactors are under construction, which will increase the capacity by 4460 MWe, including 6 pressurized heavy water reactors, two light water reactors and one fast breeder reactor.
New initiatives for Nuclear Power • With new initiatives, it is planned to generate 20000 MWe of Nuclear Power by the year 2020. • Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) • Compact High Temperature Reactor (CHTR) - non-grid based units • Accelerator Driven System (ADS) – Thorium based sub-critical Systems
New Technologies • (For non-conventional energy sources) • The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) is implementing programs on • Chemical Sources of Energy, • Hydrogen Energy, • Alternative/Bio-fuels for Surface Transportation • Geothermal Energy and • Ocean Energy. • As part of these programs, a number of research, development and demonstration projects have been taken up through various research and educational institutions, universities, national laboratories and the industry.
Bridging the gap With technological development, the gap between demand and supply of power is increasing. In order to bridge the gap and ensure adequate power supply, Indian Government is taking several steps: • Development of new and efficient technologies • Institutional reforms • Fiscal incentives • Private participation
The Road Ahead • Increasing the production of coal and electricity • Accelerated exploration of hydrocarbons • Increase efficiency in power sector • Demand management through technologies, processes and appliances • Increased use of renewable energy sources • Promotion of information technology
International Cooperation • Hydrogen Partnership • Methane to Markets Partnership • Fuel cell technology • Nanotechnology initiatives • Carbon sequestration • Gas hydrates • Photovoltaics
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