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Stratification in Canada and Worldwide Understanding Stratification Stratification by Social Class Social Mobility Stratification in the World System Chapter 8
Understanding Stratification Systems of Stratification Perspectives on Stratification Is Stratification Universal? Stratification by Social Class Measuring Social Class Consequences of Social Class Social Mobility Open versus Closed Class Systems Types of Social Mobility Social Mobility in Canada Stratification in the World System: Colonialism, Neocolonialism, and World Systems Analysis Multinational Corporations Modernization Stratification within Nations: A Comparative Perspective Chapter Eight Outline
Social Policy and Stratification: Rethinking Welfare in North America and Europe The Issue The Setting Sociological Insights Policy Initiatives Chapter Eight Outline (2) Boxes Sociology in the Global Community: Inequality in Japan Research in Action: Poverty in Canada Eye on the Media: Social Class in the Movie Titanic and on the SS Titanic
Understanding Stratification Slavery • Slavery is the most extreme form of legalized social inequality. Enslaved individuals are owned by other people. Castes • Castes are hereditary systems of rank, usually religiously dictated, that tend to be immobile. Systems of Stratification:
Understanding Stratification • Social Classes • Social classes are social rankings based on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility. • The boundaries between classes are imprecisely defined, and one can move from one level of society to another. Systems of Stratification:
Understanding Stratification • Marx • Marx believed that class differentiation is the crucial determinant of social, economic, and political inequality. • Marx viewed class struggle as the result of the conflict between owners and workers. Perspectives on Stratification:
Understanding Stratification • Weber • Weber thought no single characteristic (like class) defined a person’s position within the stratification system. • Weber saw three components of stratification: class status power Perspectives on Stratification:
Understanding Stratification • Perspectives on Stratification: • Feminist Perspectives • Critically examine the ways in which our society is stratified according to gender • Gender, race and other factors, such as age and sexual orientation, intersect to produce multiple degrees of inequality
Understanding Stratification Functionalist View • Yes. A differential system of rewards and punishments is necessary for the efficient operation of society. Conflict View • Yes. Competition for scarce resources results in political, economic, and social inequality. Is Stratification Universal?
Understanding Stratification Lenski’s Viewpoint • Yes. As societies become more complex, the emergence of surplus resources expands the possibilities for inequality in status, influence, and power. Is Stratification Universal?
Perspectives of Stratification Compared Lenski’s View Yes Although stratification has been present in all societies, its nature and extent vary enormously depending on level of economic development. Both societal and ruling class values. There will be evolutionary changes in degree of stratification. FunctionalistView Yes Some level of stratification is necessary in order to ensure that key social positions are filled. But slavery and caste systems are unnecessary. Societal values. Degree of stratification may change gradually. Conflict View Yes Stratification is not necessary. In fact, it is a major source of societal tension and conflict. Ruling class values. Degree of stratification must be reduced so that society will become more equitable. Question Is stratification universal? Is stratification necessary? What is the basis for stratification? Will there be changes over time in a society’s level of stratification?
Stratification by Social Class The Objective Method • This method assigns class largely on the basis of: occupation education income residence • Occupations are ranked by prestige, the respect and admiration an occupation holds. • Esteem refers to the reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation. Measuring Social Class:
Stratification by Social Class Wealth and Income • Income and wealth in Canada are distributed unevenly. • The Canadian labour market is producing greater inequality among families with children than it did a decade ago. • The gap between middle – and lower-income groups and the top income group is increasing in Canada. Consequences of Social Class:
Stratification by Social Class Poverty • Sociologists distinguish different types of poverty: Absolute poverty is the minimum level of subsistence that no family should live below. Relative poverty is a standard by which people are defined as being disadvantaged when compared to the nation as a whole. Consequences of Social Class:
Stratification by Social Class Poverty • Who are the poor in Canada?children women the elderly • Amajority of the poor live in rural areas. Consequences of Social Class:
Stratification by Social Class • Explaining Poverty • Why is there poverty within a nation of such great wealth? • Gans’ Functionalist Analysis • Various segments of society benefit from the existence of the poor. • Poverty satisfies positive functions for many nonpoor groups in Canada. Consequences of Social Class:
Stratification by Social Class • Life Chances • Weber’s Analysis • Life chances are opportunities to obtain material goods, positive living conditions, and favourable life experiences. • Occupying a higher position in a society improves your life changes and brings greater access to social rewards. Stratification and Life Chances:
Social Mobility • Open and closed class systems indicate the amount of social mobility in a society. Open Class Systems • In open class systems, individual position is influenced by achieved status. • Open class systems encourage competition among members of society. Open versus Closed Class Systems:
Social Mobility Closed Class Systems • Closed class systems present little or no possibility of moving up. • In closed class systems, individual position is based on ascribed status. Open versus Closed Class Systems:
Social Mobility Horizontal Mobility • Horizontal mobility is movement within the same range of prestige. Vertical Mobility • Vertical mobility is movement from one position to another of a different rank, and this movement can be upward or downward. Types of Social Mobility:
Social Mobility Intergenerational Mobility • Intergenerational mobility refers to changes in the social position of children relative to their parents. Intragenerational Mobility • Intragenerational mobility refers to changes in social position within a person’s adult life. Types of Social Mobility:
Social Mobility Occupational Mobility • Occupational mobility is impacted by the opportunities available to one’s generation. • In Canada, between 1989 and 1997, the working-age population grew by 10.2 percent while the number of available jobs grew by 5.5 percent. Social Mobility in Canada:
Social Mobility • The Impact of Education • The impact of formal schooling is a significant means of intergenerational mobility. • The likelihood of a child acquiring a university degree increases with a family’s socioeconomic status. Social Mobility in Canada:
Social Mobility • The Impact of Gender • Women are more likely than men to find several factors affecting their upward mobility, including poorer salaries than men, a greater preponderance of lower-level jobs, limited prospects for advancement, and lack of financing for self-employment ventures. Social Mobility in Canada:
Stratification in the World System Colonialism • Colonialism is the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people by a foreign power for an extended period of time. Neocolonalism • Neocolonialism is the continued dependence on more industrialized nations for managerial and technical expertise by former colonies. Colonialism, Neocolonialism, and World Systems Analysis:
Stratification in the World System Colonialism, Neocolonialism, and World Systems Analysis: Wallerstein’s World Systems Analysis • This analysis holds the view that the global economic system is divided between nations that control wealth and those from which resources are taken. • This analysis describes the unequal economic and political relationships in which certain industrialized nations dominate the core of the system.
Stratification in the World System • Multinational Corporations and Modernization: • Multinationals are commercial organizations that are headquartered in one country but do business throughout the world. • Modernization is the far-reaching process by which peripheral nations move from traditional institutions to those characteristic of more developed nations.
Unemployment Rates by Country 1999 Country Percent United States 4.2 Australia 7.2 Austria 3.7 Belgium 9.0 Canada 7.6 Denmark 5.2 Finland 10.2 France 11.3 Germany 8.7 Hungary 7.1 Ireland 5.7 Country Percent Italy 11.4 Japan 4.7 Netherlands 3.3 New Zealand 6.8 Norway 3.2 Portugal 4.5 Spain 15.9 Sweden 7.2 United Kingdom 6.2 Source: Bureau of the Census. 2000. Statistical Abstract of the United States 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Table 1377 on p. 838.
Mapping Life Worldwide: Economic Growth: GNP Changes Per Capita Source: John H. Allen. 1999. Student Atlas of World Geography. New York: Duskin/McGraw-Hill, map 31 on p. 50.
Distribution of Income in Nine Nations Brazil Mexico USA Jamaica Great Britain Canada Bangladesh Japan Sweden Source: Richard T. Schaefer. 2002. Sociology: A Brief Introduction, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Figure 8-4, p. 212. From World Bank 1997:54-56; 2000:238-239.
Concentration of World Poverty Twelve countries accounted for 80% of the world’s poor in 1993 % in poverty 36 62 66 68 70 71 73 74 75 76 77 78 100 80 60 40 20 0 India China Brazil Nigeria Indonesia Philippines Ethiopia Pakistan Mexico Kenya Peru Nepal Source: World Bank. 1998. 1998 World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank, figure 1a, p. 5.
Child’s Mortality by Mother’s Education, 1997-1998 Source: Scott C. Ratzan, Gary L. Filerman, and John W. LeSar. 2000. “Attaining Global Health: Challenges and Opportunities.” Population Bulletin 55 (March): 17.