Developmental Psychology. General overview of Theories of Developmental Psychology . Domains of Development. 1. Physical development -changes in body size, proportions, appearance, brain development, perceptual and motor capacities, & physical health.
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General overview of Theories of Developmental Psychology
Are children passive recipients of environmental stimuli or active explorers in their surroundings?
Children are active in shaping, controlling, and directing the course of their own development.
Transitions - biological (crawling, walking), psychological (the development of emotions- smiling, temper tantrums, etc.) & social (peer relationships.)
Risks-- divorce, death of loved one, accidents, disease, poverty, etc.
Children differ with regard to how they cope with these risks. Some are severely impaired, others are quite resilient.
1. Id- present from birth this structure is unconscious and seeks to gratify our most basic urges: hunger, thirst, elimination of waste, and sex.
(“I want” of our personality).
2. Ego- is primarily conscious, and tries to satisfy the demands of the id, without compromising the norms of society. The ego works according to the reality principle.
3. Super-ego: the last structure to develop, it is our moral center, it tells us what is right and wrong.
Human development is influenced by environmental factors.
Behaviorism - focuses on observable behaviors, rather than on consciousness.
(pair bell with meat)
Modeling (Albert Bandura)
We learn the consequences of given actions by observing what happens to others.
Observing whether others are reinforced or punished for given behaviors may influence the probability that we will produce such behaviors.
(E.g., when young children are given tasks scaled down in difficulty, their understanding appears closer to that of older children and the adult)
Suggests there is a problem with the assumption that discovery learning rather than adult teaching is the best way to foster development.