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Thirty Years War Review. 1618-1648. Characteristics . The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. At the end it was political rivals taking advantage of fragmentation. Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

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  • The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground.
  • At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants.
  • At the end it was political rivals taking advantage of fragmentation.
  • Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

The Peace of Westphalia 1648

  • Political Provisions:
    • Each German prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor.
    • The United Provinces [Dutch Netherlands] became officially independent
    • France received most of the German-speaking province of Alsace.
    • Switzerland became totally independent of the HRE
    • Swiss Confederation.

The Peace of Westphalia 1648

  • Religious Provisions:
    • Calvinists Princes would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg.
    • The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT
    • must permit freedom of private worship.
  • Attempt to reunite Catholic Europe ended
  • Spain in period of decline
  • National interest, not religion, dominated international affairs
  • Military revolution
  • Gunpowder, cannons
  • Calvary became obsolete
  • Large, well organized armies
  • Can the king govern without the consent of the people (parliament)?
charles i
Charles I
  • Charles I (1625-1629) inherited English and Scottish thrones, and a huge debt
  • In exchange for higher taxes, Parliament demanded,

Petition of Right (1628

  • No taxation without consent of Parliament
  • No imprisonment without due process (trial)
  • No quartering of soldiers in private homes
parliament of 1629
Parliament of 1629
  • After signing the Petition of Right,
  • The king dissolved Parliament
  • Did not call Parliament into session again for 11 years
  • Church of England (Anglican) only legal Church
  • All others repressed

National Covenant of Scotland (1638)

  • Scottish affirm loyalty to crown, declared King could not appoint bishops in Scotland
  • War breaks out between England and Scotland
the long parliament 1640 1653
The Long Parliament (1640-1653)
  • King summoned Parliament in 1640

- Needed money

  • Abolished Royal Courts
  • writ of habeas corpus - no imprisonment without cause
  • Ruled parliament must meet at least every 3 years
prelude to war
Prelude to War
  • Puritans in Parliament

- Led by Oliver Cromwell

  • Demanded religious reform

- abolition of Anglican Book of Prayer

  • Grand Remonstrance

- Bishops be denied votes in House of Lords

prelude to war1
Prelude to War
  • Charles tried to arrest 5 leaders of H.O.C
  • Parliament resisted, citizens of London sheltered the leaders
  • Royalist (Cavaliers) and Antiroyalist (Roundheads) begin to assemble armies
civil war
Civil War
  • Antiroyalist led by Oliver Cromwell
  • New Model Army
  • Used religion to motivate soldiers
  • Forced Charles to surrender
antiroyalist split
Antiroyalist Split
  • Independents- wanted churches to be free of central authority. Led by Cromwell
  • Presbyterians- establish strictly organized Calvinist system. Like Scotland
  • Presbyterians and Scots backed Charles I
  • New Model Army is victorious,

- captured the King

civil war1
Civil War
  • Independents abolish H.O.L.
  • All Presbyterians removed from Parliament
  • Charles tried and executed in 1649
  • Parliament, led by Cromwell, now in charge
new political ideas
New Political Ideas
  • Levelers - all men eligible to vote for Parliament
  • Diggers - abolish private property
cromwell s government
Cromwell’s Government
  • Military dictatorship

- “lord Protector”

  • England divided up and controlled by 11 generals
  • Banned newspapers
  • Enlisted innkeepers as spies
invasion of ireland
Invasion of Ireland
  • Ireland invaded
  • Catholics defeated
  • Land divided among Cromwell’s soldiers
cromwell s government1
Cromwell’s Government
  • Parliament offered Cromwell crown, he refused
  • Monarch in all but name
  • Named his son successor
end of revolution
End of revolution
  • Son, Richard, unable to control generals
  • Generals took control, invited Charles II to return from exile
  • Monarchy restored in 1660
glorious revolution 1688
Glorious Revolution 1688
  • James II succeeded Charles

- Strong Roman Catholic

  • Wanted to return England to Catholicism
  • Parliament invited William and Mary to take the throne
  • James fled
glorious revolution 16881
Glorious Revolution 1688
  • William and Mary made co-rulers
  • Sign English Bill of Rights
  • Grant limited religious freedom
domination of parliament
Domination of Parliament
  • Power in government dominated by Parliament
  • Parliament dominated by Gentry