ORIGINS OF WWI • The outbreak of WWI was a surprise. • Previous differences in Europe had always been settled. • WWI put an end to 3 European empires • Russian • Austrian-Hungarian • Ottoman
It was beloved that the war would be short and bloodless due to technology • This of course was not the case • There was an honest belief in the progress of man, • Diplomacy had evolved to the point where war would be avoided. • Concert of Europe: 1815. Body of representatives where grievances were aired.
In theory all countries would meet • In practice only the Great Powers do so. • The assumption was that pace was the goal and diplomacy was to be the means. • Balance of Power: In another event that one power tried to over power another, smaller powers would rise up and stop it.
Nation-States emerged unevenly • Especially in Central Europe • A conglomeration of some 300 principalities that were not united • Eastern Europe: 3 empires in decline • None was a true nation-state • 1870-1871: Germany and Italy emerge as nation-states. • This was destabilizing
Ex : France had always sought to keep Germany divided. Now it was unified and a cause of concern for France. • Franco-Prussian War: • Alsace-Lorraine given to Germany in the settlement • Honor, manhood • And pride all compromised (France) • Calls for war arise.
While nation-states did not exist, nationalism did. • Nationalism appears at different times in different places, much like nations themselves • Awareness→Philosophy→Demand→Fact • Many nationalities arise, but few have nations of their own.
The Balkans (S.E. Europe) • Rivalries in this are were spurred on by Russia • Why? • The problem of unrequited nationalism was greatest in Austria • Two dominant nationalities • Austrians (Germanic) • Magyars (Hungrian/Asiatic) • There was dual monarchy (Austria-Hungary)
2 separate gov’ts. • Shared a king, foreign minister and foreign policy • Various nationalities wanted: • Home rule • Outright independence • Concentration of ethnicities • But no one actually sought the destruction of the A-H Empire
IMPERIALISM AND GREED There is a surge of imperialism among European powers. Not a cause of the war per se, but does make for a good opportunity for a cool cartoon.
Economic Greed Today, many believe that war is driven by economics, but in early 20th Century Europe, most businessmen did not favor war. Except for…
…arms makers. Countries amassed weapons, but why? Tensions caused arms build-up. Not the other way around.
Otto von Bismarck: German chancellor and foreign minister. • Responsible for German reunification • Cold-blooded • Hard-hearted • Not emotional or sentimental • Realizes that victory vs. French would mean another war. • Calculated that as long as France was ruled by rational leaders, it would not wage war on Germany. But perhaps with allies she might…
Who might France’s allies be? • England?---No. • Austria and Russia?---Maybe. • Bismarck decides to ally himself with Aus. & Prussia before France does. • A loose arrangement was created but was not really viable due to an Austrian/Russian rivalry. • 1879: Bismarck signs a treaty of alliance with Austria-Hungary. • Each would assist the other if attacked by Russia.
Several years later…Bismarck secures an agreement with Russia by which each would remain neutral should the other go to war. • These are the first peace-time alliances in Europe. • They are crazy and can cause you to have headaches. • They are just beginning…
OvB is not done… • Also signs an agreement with Italy, a rival of Austria :/ • The Italians fear the French (really?) more than the Austrians so they sign. • France is on the outside looking in. Only Bismarck is shrew enough to hold the alliance together.
1880: Kaiser Wilhelm II comes to power • Fires Bismarck • Bismarck had realized that for power to be effective it ad to be used sparingly. • ¿What does Bismarck mean by this?
The Kaiser’s provocative action shocks Europe • He allows the treaty with Russia to lapse. • Russia is now free to get closer to France • It enters into a military alliance w/ France • ⅓ of Russian army to act if France is attacked • Bismarck’s strategic nightmare is now very real. This is what it’s coming to.
Many Germans share the thought that Germany did not receive the respect and prestige she deserved. • The Kaiser shares the same thought. • 1900: Germany decides to become a world-class naval power. • Battleships are the measuring stick • This alarms England • A larger German • fleet is seen as a • threat to the British • Empire This is a game
Britain had tried to stay out of European affairs • 1905: England enters in to peace agreement for the first time. • Entente: Declaration of friendship • Britain and France • Both agree that in the event of a German attack, the General staffs would meet • Agreed to cover each other’s backs • NOT obligated to go to war, however
The Germans also begin to express interest in the Near East. • Want to build a railroad from Berlin to Baghdad. • Germans send generals to train Ottoman soldiers
1907: Britain and Russia sit down and patch-up differences. • They split Iran into spheres of influence
TRIPLE ENTENT: • TRIPLE ALLIANCE Europe is now an armed camp
Reasons for war: Revenge Prestige Weakness National tension Alliance only a symptom, not a cause of tension.
CRISIS IN THE BALKANS • July 1914: Involves: • Austria • Serbia • Serbians in Austria • Serbia had been a part of the Ottoman Empire • Gained independence in 1878 • Land locked • Poor • Many Serbs lived in Bosnia • Part of Austria • Bosnia Serbs and Serbia looked to merge and become Yugoslavia.
The threat to Austria is both internal and foreign. • Many terrorist organizations spring up • Gov’t officials often know about them. • Austria wants to eliminate this problem. • Assassinations, etc.
Russia backs Serbs • Russia had been defeated 3 times in the past decade. • Russia seen as a paper tiger • Her threats to assist Serbia were not taken seriously.
Austria looks for a pretext to crush Serbian terrorism • The Black Hand • Terrorist group established and directed in and from Serbia. • Sarajevo, June 28, 1914…
= + GavrilloPrincip Gun One dead Archduke (Heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne)
Princip was not a member of the Black Hand, but did receive assistance from them • Ferdinand had been considering giving autonomy to the Austrian Serbs but… • The terrorists felt that autonomous Austrian Serbs would lose interest in a Serbian nation • This makes Ferdinand an excellent target. • The A-H Government KNOWS ABOUT THE PLOT but… • DOES NOTHING! • why?
Because • They decided to use the assassination as a pretext to attack Serbia. • A-H checks with Germany who of course promises to back her.
Mid July: A-H frames an ultimatum: • 10 demands • Extreme and insulting and destructive of Serbian autonomy • Designed to force Serbia to reject and give • A-H and excuse to fight …
Russia begins to respond to the crisis after Serbia consults them • Russia indicates she will fight if Serbia is attacked. • She feels a need to help after failing to do so before. • Russia threatens to mobilize its army • To protect their Serbian brothers. • Serbia accepts 9 of the 10 demands • Has Russian support • Refused to allow A-H participation in the investigation, capture, and conviction of the assassins.
July 25: Austria breaks diplomatic ties with Serbia and mobilizes her army. But… • She DOES NOT declare war. • The England proposes a conference but… • She DOES NOT push hard.
France is engaged with egging on Russia to back the Serbs. • France had no intention of going to war with Germany • A fact not advertized publically. • Finally… • July 28, 1914: A-H declares war on Serbia • The Kaiser gets scared • Advocates that A-H occupies Belgrade and go no further. • The Tsar gets scared • Correspondence resumes with Germany
Russia mobilizes her armed forces. Russian forces a-mobilizin’ • July 31: Pro-war demonstrations in Europe Hitler a-demonstratin’
Socialist believe—and hope, that the proletariat would conduct a general strike in the event of war. But… • Class consciousness vanishes • Strike never takes place • In fact, many socialists enlist in the armies of their country. • Russia at first mobilizes along the A-H border • Later, they mobilize along the German border. • Done for defensive purposes, but… • Germany considers this an act of war.
The Schlieffen Plan: • If Germany goes to war with Russia she will attack and defeat France quickly • After the French are defeated, all forces would be turned to Russia
July 31: Germany sends an ultimatum • Aug 1: Germany declares war on Russia and France • Everyone declares war on everyone else as per the alliances and ententes. • Italy and the U.S. remain neutral
In 1839, England promised to uphold Belgian sovereignty. • Germany plans to go thru Belgium to get to France • Per the Schlieffen Plan • Britain warns Germany not touch Belgium. • Germans don’t believe the English threats and move on Belgium, so… IT ALL MAKES PERFECT SENSE.
World War I was probably inevitable • Long term problems from the 1800’s still existed. • Nationalism • German want for prestige • Alliances and ententes
Everyone thought the war would be short • The Schleiffen Plan was enacted to prevent a two front war but… • Russia mobilizes much quicker than anyone thought possible and… • The French use all roads and vehicles to met the Germans before they advance too far, so… • ¿What was the inherent problem with the Schlieffen Plan?
Exactly! The Schlieffen Plan is a very important aspect of World War I and I knew you guys would figure it out! Great job! This in no way is meant to represent an endorsement of the Democratic party. Teachers shouldn’t proselytize about politics or religion. With that very important question answered, let’s move on…
We have now determined that the Schlieffen Plan was more suited to pre-industrial times • There should be no surprise at the fact that the front froze in France for the rest of the war. • The invention of the machine gun causes both sides to stay in trenches.
Other weapons are developed to neutralize the machine gun: Gas: unreliable and uncontrollable Tanks: First used by the British