stepping up the sanitation ladder the case study of samaro district umerkot n.
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Stepping Up the Sanitation Ladder: The Case Study of Samaro (District Umerkot). Tehsil Municipal Administration - Samaro. Profile of Samaro. HHs 2289 with population 14563 (Under Literacy rate (20 % women and 45 % men) Schools - 44 (public and private) Health facilities 1 THQ

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stepping up the sanitation ladder the case study of samaro district umerkot

Stepping Up the Sanitation Ladder: The Case Study of Samaro (District Umerkot)

Tehsil Municipal Administration - Samaro

profile of samaro
Profile of Samaro
  • HHs 2289 with population 14563 (Under
  • Literacy rate (20 % women and 45 % men)
  • Schools - 44 (public and private)
  • Health facilities 1 THQ
  • Poverty - Extremely /chronically 48 % and non poor 4 %
baseline sanitation hhs survey 2007
Baseline Sanitation HHs Survey - 2007
  • Main source of drinking water - open ponds 58.0 %
  • Water purification at HH level 30 %
  • Diarrhea incidence 20 % (every fifth person)
  • Malaria 17 %
  • Skin diseases 7 %
  • Solid Waste Management by TMA 13 %
  • Hazard waste 8 %
triangle of project stakeholders
Triangle of Project Stakeholders


TMA /Local Govt


Other technical




  • Facilitation and building linkages with other stakeholders
  • Technical Support
  • Integration with other interventions
  • Partial financial support
  • Capacity building and social mobilization
  • Monitoring /Reporting /Documentation


  • Direct beneficiaries
  • Participation (awareness sessions with men, women, children, and other key stakeholders)
  • Social change agent (natural leaders, teachers, religious leaders, LHWs etc)
  • Monitoring


  • Creating enabling environment at the Dist /Tehsil & UC level
  • Advocacy with key stakeholders e.g. education /health dept staff/workers
  • Allocation of financial support (cash /in kind)
  • Allocation of human resources
  • Monitoring
sanitation ladder

Stagnant water



Solid waste

Human excreta

Lack of hygiene


Sanitation Ladder
step 1 hygiene promotion
Step 1: Hygiene Promotion
  • Messages on personal hygiene, HH cleanliness, latrine use /maintenance, disease prevention measures, water purification, solid waste disposal, washing fruit /vegetables before use etc.
  • Focused beneficiaries: Children, women & men through various HH and community based awareness sessions and activities social mobilizers, religious leaders, UC councilors, teachers, traders etc.
  • HH and community level awareness sessions, community walk, sessions and tableau in schools (observation of Intl’ days i.e. World Health Day etc.)
step 2 open defecation free communities through clts
Step 2: Open Defecation Free Communities through CLTS
  • UC /TMA functionaries were trained /oriented on CLTS in April 2007
  • TMA and TRDP jointly developed a strategy to address open defecation issue in consultation with communities
  • 35 staff, mobilizers /stakeholders were trained on social mobilization tools & techniques on CLTS in May 2007
  • Baseline survey conducted in June 2007 of all 2289 HHs on latrine availability /use, source of drinking water /purification, HH income & expenditure on health, health and hygiene practices, solid waste, drainage /sewerage
awareness and sensitization
Awareness and Sensitization
  • Trained staff /stakeholders initiated awareness and sensitization of other stakeholders (teachers, LHWs, religious leaders, councilors etc).
  • Teachers involved children in health and hygiene activities for eradicating open defecation and promoting the use of latrine (songs, tableaus, community walk etc.)
  • LHWs promoted building & use of latrine along with other health messages.
  • Religious leaders sensitized communities through Juma sermon. Non Muslim religious leaders also played key role in sensitizing their communities.
  • TRDP’s trained staff provided technical support in building latrine and its maintenance.
tools for awareness and sensitization
Tools for awareness and sensitization
  • Transect walk
  • HH map showing HHs with and without latrine
  • Calculation of human excreta
  • HH income and expenditure on health
  • ODF communities (latrine options)
  • Natural leaders identification
  • Action plan preparation (Timeline, Follow up, Monitoring)
flow diagram
Flow Diagram





achieved odf status
Achieved ODF Status
  • Samaro is the First UC in Pakistan to achieve ODF Status
  • Construction of latrines through self help basis without subsidy
  • 1204 new latrine have been constructed
  • 2289 HHs behaviour changed for regular use of latrine of all family members (practicing hand washing etc).
  • Reward has been given to 12 villages with an estimated cost of 6.5 Million for water courses, drinking water ponds & community centers
odf certification
ODF Certification
  • ODF claim submitted by natural leaders /focal person of the village to UC Nazim.
  • Verification by a committee (LHW and /or teacher, UC Councilor, TMA representative and religious leader)
  • Indicators - excreta free open space, excreta free drains, excreta free hands & sustaining excreta free status)
  • Monitoring for at least six months after achieving ODF status
experience sharing with other organizations
Experience Sharing with other Organizations

UC Nazim – Rana Wahen Multan

Field Unit In charge Kotli Sattian – NRSP

Social Mobilizer LSO Danyore - Gilgit

sharing experiences
Sharing Experiences
  • Samaro experience is being scaled up in 10 other Union Councils of District Tharparkar adjacent to District Umerkot.
  • Capacity building of other UCs key stakeholders on CLTS
step 3 litter free environment
Step 3: Litter Free Environment
  • Strategy for solid waste management developed based on the 3Rs concept (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle)
  • Collection of slid waste from 1200 HHs and sorting into organic and inorganic.
  • Inorganic waste is further divided into different types e.g. bottles, tetra pack, shoppers etc.
  • Organic waste is processed for composting
step 3 litter free environment1
Step 3: Litter Free Environment
  • Social mobilzers have been trained on tools and techniques of social mobilization of solid waste management
  • Mapping of 1200 HHs has been completed
  • TMA has allocated staff who have been trained on solid waste management (collection, sorting and processing)
  • Equipping TMA staff with necessary equipments and tools i.e. donkey cart, gloves etc.
  • TMA has allocated Rs. 2 Million for this initiative
  • Sorting & composting site is allocated by TMA
step 4 low cost sanitation
Step 4: Low Cost Sanitation
  • Development of strategy based on OPP model on component sharing by Community and TMA
  • HHs contribution on monthly basis for primary line construction and maintenance
  • Main sewerage line construction and maintenance by TMA
  • Orientated TMA/TRDP staff and CRPs on OPP model and social mobilization tools and techniques for awareness creation.
step 4 current progress
Step 4: Current Progress
  • TMA staff trained on mapping, sketching and documentation
  • Sketching and mapping of 80 HHs has been done
  • 6 Village Sanitation Committees have been formed
  • UC/Dist Govt. has contributed 7.5 Million amount for disposal and main line sewerage and construction is in progress.
  • Political commitment at all levels (UC, Teshil & District etc.)
  • TMA’s engineers are more focused on infrastructure schemes than addressing sanitation issues through behaviour change of communities
  • Scattered population of Samaro
  • Lack of involvement of local communities in sanitation initiatives by TMA
  • Lower literacy rate needs effective social mobilization tools and techniques
  • Higher rate of poverty
  • Uncertainty of migration - no land entitlement etc.
lesson learned
Lesson Learned

A paradigm shift of TMA towards community sanitation issues.

The approach is sustainable as it focuses on behavior change of local communities

TMA commitment and technically enhanced capacity is essential for community based intentions

TMA partnership with local organizations can help in sensitizing local communities through PRA tools and techniques

Exposure to new approaches of sanitation

Opportunity of partnership with non governmental organizations

Community based sanitation approaches are based on inclusive concept of poor and non poor / women and men etc.

Women and children were instrumental in awareness creation

A model of rural sanitation tested in the least developed district of Sindh (Umerkot)

  • The triangle of partnership is essential (TMA /Local Organizations & Communities)
  • Behaviour change through social mobilization tools is the key to the solution of sanitation issues
  • Building the capacity of local communities on social mobilization tools and techniques is the key to sustainable change.
  • Locally modified health and hygiene messages are easily understood
  • Sharing of experience with other stakeholders about a model of rural sanitation tested in the least developed district of Sindh (Umerkot)