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Chapter 18 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: An Intellectual Revolution in the West
The Scientific Revolution • Background • Renaissance humanists • Renaissance artists • New instruments and machines • Mathematics • Hermetic magic • Astronomy • Ptolemaic (geocentric) conception • Copernicus (1473-1543) • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) • Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Medicine • Galen • Andreas Vesalius (15114-1564) • William Harvey (1578-1657) • Women in the Origins of Modern Science • Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673) • Maria Winkelmann (1670-1720) • Female physiology • Descartes, Rationalism and a New View of Humankind • René Descartes (1596-1650) • Discourse on Method, 1637 • Deductive reasoning
Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century • Conflict between science and religion • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) • Union of science and religion • Spread of Scientific Thought • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) • Inductive reasoning • Scientific societies
Centers of Enlightenment circa 1700 1. Among the first scientific societies was the Academy of Experiments established in Florence in 1657 by two of Galileo's students and patronized by the Medicis. It had laboratory facilities to carry out experiments. 2. The English Royal Society evolved out of the informal gatherings of scientists at London and Oxford in the 1640s. Charles II chartered Oxford in 1662 but it received little state support. 3. The French Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris grew out of informal scientific meetings in the 1650s and gained formal recognition by Louis XIV in 1666. It received extensive state support and remained under state control. Members were appointed and paid salaries by the state. 4. The construction of observatories in 1675 at Paris and at Greenwich in England greatly facilitated research in astronomy. 5. The Scientific Academy was created in Berlin by the elector of Brandenburg in 1700. Sponsored by the government, it was devoted to the betterment of the state. 6. Beginning in 1665 the Journal de Savants was published weekly in Paris. The journal provided its readers general scientific knowledge and results of experiments. In England, The English Royal Society published Philosophical Transactions beginning in 1665. With a focus upon practicing scientists, it published papers of its members and learned correspondence. 7. Amsterdam was a center of publishing since the seventeenth century. 8. The Enlightenment in Sweden was focused at Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences established in 1741. Also significant was Linnaeus's Botanical Gardens created at Uppsala in 1741. The Swedish Academy was established in 1786 at Stockholm. 9. More books were written in the eighteenth century on education than all previous centuries combined. In general, there was discontent with the control of education by the clergy that gave rise to a demand that there be state regulation and inspection of educational facilities. By the second half of the eighteenth century, new schools were established in Prussia, Belgium, Austria, and Russia. These schools taught practical subjects suited to the interests of the people. 10. The teaching of medicine in the eighteenth century was centered at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. Also of importance for medicine were Edinburgh University in Scotland and a new medical school founded in Vienna. 11. Emperors, kings, and princes throughout Europe sought to demonstrate their wealth and power by building palaces imitating the estate of the French king at Versailles. While they were able to reproduced the size, the style original. Baroque-Rococo blended into the whole building sculptured figures as well as wall and ceiling paintings. Question: 1. How did the universities represent centers of dissemination for the Enlightenment? Centers of Enlightenment circa 1700
The Enlightenment • Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757) • Skepticism about Christianity • John Locke (1632-1704) • Isaac Newton (1642-1727) • The Philosophes • Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) • François-Marie Arouet, Voltaire (1694-1778) • Deism • Denis Diederot (1713-1784) • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
The Science of Man • Physiocrats • François Quesnay (1694-1774) • Adam Smith (1723-1790) • The Question of Women • Nature and value of women • Mary Astill (1666-1731) • Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) • Spread of the Enlightenment • Marie-Thèrése de Geoffrin • Coffeehouses, cafés, reading clubs, lending libraries • Learned societies
Culture and Society • Rococo • Art and architecture • Music • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) • Franz Joseph Hayden (1732-1809) • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) • Literature • Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) • Henry Fielding (1707-1754)
Popular Culture • Festivals • Carnival • Taverns • Crime and Punishment • Decline in crimes of violence, increase in theft • Public spectacle • Death penalty
Religion • Jews • Sephardic Jews • Catholicism • Methodism • John Wesley (1703-1791)