Chapter 2Controversies Over Federal Aid To Education GILED 703 History of American Education Keith M. Gorse
Chapter 2Controversies Over Federal Aid To Education Week # 3 Alternate Interpretation – Phase 2
Introduction Alternate Interpretation Between 1945 – 1955 there was a major conflict in the United Sates over the federal aid for elementary, secondary, and higher education.
Federal Aid To Education1940 - 1945 • Aid restricted to the 1941 Lanham Act and the 1944 Servicemen’s Readjustment Act ( GI Bill) • There was limited federal aid money available for school building construction, school supplies, and teacher salaries.
STRATEGICCONSIDERATIONS Plans For Federal Aid Education
The Fair DealWhat It Would Do • Assist elementary, secondary, and higher education • Assist in school construction • Improve teacher salaries • Equalize all educational opportunities Questions arose in front of Congress Congress: Controlled by Republicans
The Fair DealQuestions & Concerns • How would federal aid relate to local and state control? • Should racially segregated schools receive federal aid funding? • Should private and parochial schools receive federal funding?
The Taft LegislationTaft – Thomas Bill of 1948 • $300 million annually in federal assistance • Tried to avoid conflicts • Divided up between each state to spend • State would receive money initially for public school usage. • State had the option to distribute money to non-public schools
The Taft LegislationTaft – Thomas Bill of 1948 • Passed in the Senate • Held up indefinitely in the House Committee on Education and Labor • Was never seen again
The Barden BillGraham A. Barden • Southern Democratic Congressman & Former Teacher • Approved of federal aid only to public schools • $300 million a year for only public schools • No federal aid for non public schools and their activities • No federal aid for southern states black and white schools
The Barden BillNegative Response • House Majority Leader – John McCormick • Chair of the Education and Labor Committee – John Lesinski • Both were Roman Catholics • Both attacked the Bill as unfair to African Americans and Roman Catholics • Never passed within the House
Federal Aid To Education – Early 1950sMilitary & Federal Defense Sites
Progress Report Form # 3The Alternate Interpretation Important Parts/Elements Essential Dominant Essential Alternate Chapter 2 Interpretations Interpretations 1. Federal Aid Federal Aid Federal Aid 2. Segregated Schools Segregated Schools Political Views 3. Parochial Schools Parochial Schools Federal & State Control 4. Political Control Supreme Court Cases Public vs. Non-Public 5. Supreme Court Cases Political Unrest Democrat vs Republican
Progress Report Form # 3The Alternate Interpretation 15 Important Sources of Material 1. Gutek, G.L., American Education: 1945-2000 A History and Commentary. Chicago Il. 2000. Waveland 2. "President Truman's Address to the NAACP, June 28, 1947". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.. 3. www.pbs.org. Harry Truman – An American President. 2000 4. www.britannica.com “ Fair Deal” Encyclopedia Britannica Article 2002 5. Chase-Statler. "Harry Truman, April 19, 1945." 1945 Apr. 19. Portraits of the Presidents and First Ladies, 1789-Present, Library of Congress. 6. Kirk, Russell and James McClellan, eds. The Political Principles of Robert A. Taft 1967. 7. Wunderlin, Clarence E. Robert A Taft: Ideas, Tradition, And Party In U.S. Foreign Policy (2005). 8. Patterson, James T. Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft 1972 9. http://www.anb.org. Robert A. Taft 2000 10. Life Magazine – October, 1948 11. Wunderlin, C. Papers of Robert a Taft 1945 1948 Volume 3 12. Allen, Hollis P. The Federal Government and Education [1785-1950]: The Original and Complete Study of Education for the Hoover Commission Task Force on Public Welfare. New York: McGraw Hill, 1950. 13. Tiedt, Sidney W. Role of the Federal Government in Education. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966. 14. Life Magazine – July, 1949 15. www.ed.gov
Progress Report Form # 3The Alternate Interpretation The Single Most Important Alternate Insight Truman’s State of the Union Address in 1949 “millions of our children are not receiving a good education”
Controversies Over Federal Aid To Education THE END THANK-YOU