Chapter 22 Notes South Asia
Northern Mountains • Himalaya Mountains are the highest mountain range in the world. (Everest is 29,035 feet currently) • Other mountain ranges in the north are the Karakoram and the Hindu Kush • For centuries trading caravans have used the Khyber Pass to reach India • Scientist believe that the northern mountains were formed by tectonic plate movement
Northern Plains • The three rivers Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra water the fertile plains of the north. • Ganges and Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal • Indus flows into the Arabian Sea • 40% of India’s population lives on the Ganges Plain • Delta have formed where the river meets the bay or sea
Southern Landforms • The Ghats are both eroded coastal mountains • Western Ghats block rains from reaching the Deccan Plateau • Karnataka Plain receives the rain from Arabian Sea before it reaches the Deccan Plateau • You can smell spices and see elephants on the green Karnataka Plain.
Natural Resources • Most South Asians grow crops or raise livestock on small plots • India has more natural resources than its neighbors (iron, ore , manganese and chromite and coal) • Pakistan has limestone and natural gas • The regions fast moving rivers are used to create hydroelectricity
Environmental Concerns • Water is often polluted in large cities and near factories. Farming fertilizers also pollute the rivers • Forests are cut down for firewood and building purposes. Most heat and cook on wood in rural areas • A brown cloud has formed over the Indian Ocean from factories and cooking and heating fires • Villagers heat and cook with kerosene, wood, charcoal and dung
Monsoons • Three distinct season: hot wet and cool depend on monsoon winds • The monsoon rains are heaviest in Eastern South Asia • Some areas suffer droughts while other areas experience heavy flooding from monsoons and cyclones. • Bangladesh has severe flooding in the delta area • A 1999 storm killed 10,000 people
Climate Areas • Bangladesh can receive 100 inches of rain per year • The city of Cherrapunji averages 450 inches per year • Near the Indus River farmers must use irrigation because the land is so dry • Thar Desert extremely dry gravel plains near Pakistan • Little grows in the Highland climate above 16,000 feet • Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley has a mild climate July averages 78 degrees and January 50 degrees