Chapter 22 Notes- Human Geography of Southwest Asia Religion, Politics, & Oil
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula • Islam- based on the teachings of Muhammad. • Monotheistic • Mosque- place of worship • All Muslims (followers of Islam) perform the 5 pillars.
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula • 5 Pillars • 1. Faith (Iman or Shahadah)- no God but Allah, & Muhammad is messenger of Allah • 2. Prayer (Salah)- praying 5x’s per day towards Mecca • 3. Charity (Zakah)- giving money to the poor.
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula • 5 Pillars cont.- • 4. Fasting (Saum)- during month of Ramadan, do not eat or drink anything between sunrise & sunset. • 5. Pilgrimage (Hajj)- make pilgrimage to Mecca once during life.
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula • Theocratic- religious leaders control the government. • many of the governments in the region are this • Ayatollah- Muslim religious leader
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula • OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries- • Members set worldwide oil prices & production quotas • DON’T WRITE- Members include Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.
Country Crude oil reserves(million barrels) Saudi Arabia 262,697 Iraq 112,500 Iran 99,080 United Arab Emirates 97,800 Kuwait 96,500 Which countries have the largest reserves of crude oil?
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula • Arabic Women- • Most cover themselves from head to toe in a burqa (Arabic covering) • Modesty & being covered is believed to be pleasing to god.
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean • 3 major religions were all started in Southwest Asia • Judaism, Christianity, & Islam • All 3 claim Jerusalem as a holy city.
Section 2:The Eastern Mediterranean • Jews- Jerusalem is holiest city • Holiest site- Western Wall (Wailing Wall) • Whole area is known as the Temple Mount • DON’T WRITE • First Temple built by King Solomon then destroyed • Temple rebuilt • Second Temple destroyed by the Romans • Only piece left standing is known as the Western Wall • No Jewish temple on site since 70 A.D.
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean • DON’T WRITE • Christians cherish the land as the area where Jesus Christ was crucified & for the holy areas of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher (where crucified) & Mount of the Olives.
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean • Islam claims Jerusalem as 3rd holiest city behind Mecca & Medina • Dome of the Rock- spot where Muslims believe the Prophet Muhammad rose into heaven • AKA- Haram Ash-Sharif (Temple Mount) • Next to Western Wall • Site of frequent clashes between Muslims & Jews
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean • Ottoman Empire- Muslim based government, started in Turkey • Lasted from 1520-1920 (‘til end of WW1)
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean • Zionism- goal of the creation & support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine • DON’T WRITE • After WW1 Britain controlled Palestine
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean • After WW2 world sentiment favored giving the Jews a national homeland. • May 14th, 1948 Israel was established. • Immediately Attacked • DON’T WRITE-Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, & Yemen attacked.
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)- formed to regain the land for Arabs • Political & Military means used
Section 3: The Northeast • The Kurds- ethnic group in Southwestern Asia • Stateless nation • 5,000+ were gassed to death by Saddam Hussein’s army. • Saddam was executed for this
Section 3: The Northeast • Mesopotamia- many civilizations were started here in the “land between the rivers” (AKA The Fertile Crescent) • Sumer • Babylonia • Assyria • Chaldea • Hittites • Persia
Section 3: The Northeast • Two main branches of Islam • Sunni Muslim- 83% of all Muslims • Shi’ite Muslim
Section 3: The Northeast • Taliban- fundamentalist Muslim political group in Afghanistan
1955 Afghanistan asks US for military ties, we say no • Afghanistan looks to USSR, • Pro-communist ideas were adopted into the gov. and a Communist Party was in place in Afghanistan
1978 pro soviet groups staged a coup and installed their own puppet government
1978 - New regime announces changes such as equal rights for women, land reforms.. • Protests result from these reforms (pro-Islamic groups)
Afghan army collapses as revolts take place all over, govt. asks for military aid from US
1980 - Resistance to Soviet occupation forms in Afghanistan & Pakistan called the mujahideen or “holy warriors”, • US CIA begins to support these rebels with arms supplied through Pakistan
UN sponsored peace talks with Afghanistan. Soviet Union, Pakistan, and the US
1996 - various factions fight for control of the Afghan government, • Many ethnic warlords and leaders battle each other • Taliban group – take charge by bribing local warlords and making false promises
Taliban forces take the capital of Kabul and about 75% of the country • make massive changes • establish a very strict form of Islamic law
No television, music or movies No whistling or clapping No dancing No shorts No photography No smoking Men must have a beard and wear a head covering
Women: • No jobs, must stay at home • Must wear the burqa and be with a male relative outside the house • No schooling/education • No revealing ankles/ no white socks • No treatment by male doctors • No make-up or brightly colored clothes
No associating with male shopkeepers • No laughing loudly • No high heels • No driving • No riding bicycles • No washing clothes next to a river unless a male relative is present • Windows must be painted or covered