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Paint Circulation Technology L evel 2 - Training Document. Subject Matter Expert: Miguel Bahena. What Is A Paint Circulating System. A pressurized vessel used to transport material to various locations. More efficient then manual moving material to individual locations. What Are We Doing?.

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what is a paint circulating system
What Is A Paint Circulating System

A pressurized vessel used to transport material to various locations. More efficient then manual moving material to individual locations.

what are we doing
What Are We Doing?

Moving material from point A to point B.

Supply material fluid pressure.

Supply material fluid flow.

Maintain material integrity.

That is all we do!

Sounds simple doesn’t it?

what are we doing1
What Are We Doing?

Point A

Point B

slide5

PAINT MIX ROOM

  • The martial that is used for painting the vehicles is a solvent borne material which is extremely flammable. The paint is stored and pumped from a paint mix room.
  • MIX ROOMS ARE CLASS 1 DIVISION 1 AREAS – NO ELECTRIC ITEMS ARE ALLOWED IN THIS ROOM INCLUDING – (CELL PHONES, FLASH LIGHTS, RADIOS, ETC). UNLESS APPROVED BY FORD SAFETY

Tote storage rack

Tote stand for loading material

Bulk Storage Tank for Solvent and Waste

Typical circulation

system

Typical paint mix room

typical paint circulation system components
Typical Paint Circulation System Components

Transfer Pump

Surge Chamber

Day Tank

BPR

Pump

Supply Line

Tote Tank

Return Line

Booth

Drops

Heat Exchanger

slide7

PAINT CIRCULATION HEADER

  • The paint is pumped from the paint circulation module to the spray booths in what is called a header system. The headers system is constructed from stainless steel pipe/tubing and delivers paint to each robot or manual spray station.
  • At each robot or manual station, a line tee’s off the header to feed this station. This is called a drop/paint station.

Typical paint circulation header

slide8

PAINT HEATEXCHAGNER SYSTEM

  • The paint must be applied to the vehicle at the correct temperature. A paint heat exchanger system is used to maintain a temperature of +/- 2 degrees F

Tube and shell heat exchanger

Water supply and return lines

Water conditioning skid

slide9

WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM

  • Each time the robot or manual station changes color a certain amount of waste is generated. This waste is collected at the paint booth in a waste collection system.

Special Waste Collection Funnel Under Cap Cleaner to Flush Drop Legs and Prevent Debris from Entering Waste Header

Recirculation of the header and drop legs are very important

Gravity Waste Header Fabricated from 2” S.S. Tubing Utilizing Sanitary Fittings for Smooth ID and Ease of Maintenance. Line Installed at ¼” – 3/8” per foot to maintain proper drain velocity

Ball Valves Added to Header to Have the Ability to Power Flush Header for Preventative Maintenance

Purge Solvent Piped to Tank so Virgin Solvent Can be Added for Cleaning. A Catalyst Stop can be Substituted to Prevent the Catalyst from Curing (paint supplier can recommend material)

Special Cage Inside Tank to Capture 2K Waste Debris From Clogging Pumps

Utilize (1) Pump for Recirculation and (1) Pump for Empting of the Tank

Note: Containment Pan Not Shown

supply material fluid pressure
Supply Material Fluid Pressure?
  • Generally between 80-100 PSI at the drop and 20-60 PSI at the point of atomization.
supply material fluid pressure1
Circulating systems must provide minimum required fluid pressure at all drops.

As material flows through piping friction causes a “pressure loss”. This pressure loss must be calculated in order to ensure the last drop meets the minimum pressure requirement.

Pressure calculations are done via the “Delta P Formula”.

Supply Material Fluid Pressure?
slide12

DELTA P FORMULA

P

Q V L

FORMULA ~

= .0273

4

ID

~ “Change”

P

~ “Pressure” (Pounds per Square Inch)

Q

~ “Quantity of Flow” (Gallons Per Minute)

V

~ “Viscosity” (Poise)

L

~ “Length” (Feet)

ID

~ “Inside Diameter” (Inches)

slide13

DELTA P FORMULA

Example:

Calculate Pressure Lost Between Drop 1 & Drop 2?

50 Feet

1” x .065 WALL - 18 GAUGE S.S. TUBING

Drop 1

Drop 2

Viscosity = 1 Poise

Quantity = 1.84 GPM (1 foot per sec)

Length = 50 Feet

I.D. = .87 Inches (1” x .065 Wall S.S. Tubing)

slide14

DELTA P FORMULA

  • Substitute numbers into formula

P

Q V L

FORMULA ~

= .0273

4

ID

P

1.84 * 1 * 50

FORMULA ~

= .0273

4

.87

50 Feet

Drop 2

Drop 1

1” x .065 WALL - 18 GAUGE S.S. TUBING

P

= 4.384 psi

what are we doing2
Maintain Material Integrity?

This is the #1 concern for paint circulating system design. Issues include:

Material velocity

Shear (turns through system)

What Are We Doing?
maintain material integrity
Material Velocity

Material must maintain a certain velocity through all piping and drop hoses.

“Velocity” is measured via ft/sec of material flow through piping and drop hoses.

General rule is WB material must maintain 0.5’/sec and SB 1’/sec.

Maintain Material Integrity?
maintain material integrity2
Material Velocity

If velocity is to low then material can settle.

If material settles finished product can have the “appearance” of dirt when in fact it is a settling issue.

Over time this can also lead to restricted or clogged lines (usually return lines).

Maintain Material Integrity?
maintain material integrity3
Material Velocity

If velocity is to high then extra energy is being used and material shear levels are higher then necessary.

Higher velocity equates to higher then necessary pump flow rates and turns through paint circulating system.

Maintain Material Integrity?
maintain material integrity4
Maintain Material Integrity?

Shear

Shear is caused at any point where force is put on material.

High pressure combined with high flow will cause the highest shear point (i.e. BPR, pump ball checks, regulators…).

The lower the pressure and/or flow the better.

maintain material integrity5
Shear

General rule is after 1000 turns through the system material will have visible color degradation.

Material must be replenished or it could be damaged beyond repair.

80/20 Theory: 80% of paint waste costs comes from 20% of material (i.e. low run colors).

Maintain Material Integrity?
maintain material integrity6
Maintain Material Integrity?

Material Integrity Example

what are we doing3
What Are We Doing?

Supply Material Flow?

Total system flow is based on the following:

  • Total applicator flow requirements if all applicators are flowing at maximum rate at one time.

OR

  • Required material velocity flow rate needed to maintain material integrity.

WHICHEVER IS HIGHER

slide24

TYPES OF PAINT CIRC SYSTEMS

What are end user options?

  • THREE PIPE SYSTEM
  • TWO PIPE SYSTEM
  • ONE PIPE SYSTEM
  • PIGGABLE SYSTEM
slide25

3-Pipe Systems

~ Advantage:

  • Circulation thru Color Valve
  • Color valve can be mounted on robot arm (low material waste)

~ Disadvantage:

  • Time and material to clean
  • Old Technology – Does not work well with WB Paints
  • Regulator Dependent – Have to adjust to make sure system is balanced
  • Different velocities throughout system
  • Costly labor to design & install
  • Not easily expandable
  • Swings in viscosity can cause problems
slide26

Three Pipe System

(1) Supply – (2) Returns

slide27

TWO PIPE SYSTEM

  • GRADUATED LINE SIZES
  • SINGLE BPR (Back Pressure Regulator)
  • RECIRCS THROUGH COLOR VALVE MOUNTED ON ROBOT ARM
  • HYDRAULICALLY BALANCED OR REGULATOR DEPENDANT
slide29

2-Pipe Systems

~ Advantage:

  • Circulation in Color Valve
  • Color valve can be mounted on robot arm (low material waste)
  • Not Regulator Dependent

~ Disadvantage:

  • Time and material to clean
  • Different velocities throughout system
  • Costly labor to design & install
  • Not easily expandable
  • Swings in viscosity can cause problems
one pipe system ring main
ONE PIPE SYSTEM (Ring Main)

One pipe circles booth. Deadend drops are used to supply color valve with material.

slide34

Overview

1-Pipe Systems

~ Disadvantage:

~ Advantage:

  • Low volume containment
  • Quick color change
  • Quick viscosity adjustment
  • Reduced energy
  • Easily expandable
  • Lower install cost
  • No Circulation through Color Valve
  • Material settling at deadend drops
slide35

Overview

Piggable System

~ Advantage:

  • Low volume containment
  • No settling
  • Quick color change
  • Capable of being shut down
  • Expandable
  • Reduced energy
  • Circulates through color valve
  • Low design engineering costs
  • Simpler operation
  • Consistent velocity
  • Low solvent usage

~ Disadvantage:

  • Color valve cannot be located on robot arm (must be hard mounted)
slide36

\

PIGGABLESYSTEMS

slide37

COMPRESSED AIR HEADER

SOLVENT HEADER

MAIN PAINT LINE COLOR 1

COLOR CHANGE VALVE

MAIN PAINT LINE COLOR 1

MAIN PAINT LINE COLOR 1

paint circulation system components
Paint Circulation System Components

Transfer Pump

Surge Chamber

Day Tank

BPR

Pump

Supply Line

Tote Tank

Return Line

Booth

Drops

Heat Exchanger

slide39

TYPES OF BALL VALVES

  • Non-Encapsulated Ball Valves
  • Dirt builds up between ball
  • Not easily cleanable
  • Paint can settle out
  • Cheaper
  • FORD SPEC - Full-Encapsulated Ball Valves
  • No space for dirt build up
  • Easily cleanable
  • Piggable
  • More Expensive
slide40

TYPES OF FITTINGS

  • Threaded Fittings
  • Dirt builds up threads
  • Rough inside diameter
  • Oil used to cut threads
  • Not piggable
  • Sanitary Fittings
  • Used in dairy and pharma industry
  • Cleanest fitting
  • No oil used in fabrication
  • Piggable
slide41

DUAL FUNCTION FILTERS

Cartridge

Basket Strainer

Filter Housing

Bag

Centering Ring

slide42

TYPES OF AGITATORS

  • Vain Air Motors
  • High SCFM usage (15 – 30 scfm)
  • High cost to operate
  • Oil required for lubrication
  • Radial Piston Air Motor
  • Low SCFM usage (2 – 4 scfm)
  • Low cost to operate
  • Oil NOT required for lubrication
  • FORD SPEC - Electric Direct Drive Agitator Motor
  • Lowest cost to operate
  • Most expensive to integrate (larger tanks)
slide43

TANKS

  • FLAT LID TANKS
  • Removal lids for cleaning
  • Larger access openings
  • Not recommended for WB – Paints
  • DOMED TOP TANKS
  • Not Removable
  • Typically smaller openings
  • Condensation builds up and wicks side wall
  • Recommend for WB Paints
description e4 60 e4 90 16 24 gpm
Description E4-60 & E4-9016 & 24 GPM

Main Pump Assembly

Main Components

  • 5 HP Motor & Gearbox
  • Main Cam Shaft and Bearings
  • 4 Cylinders 8 Ball Check
  • Carriage and Cam Follower
  • Carriage Support Shaft and Linear Ball Bearing Bushes
turbine pump technology
Turbine Pump Technology

Use multi stage chambers each with a “impeller” blade that centrifugally create pressure and flow.

Each chamber will create shear and increase paint temperature as the impeller blade abuses material.

Temperature increase demonstrates the inefficiency of the pump…temperature increase is lost energy.

A large 10 to 20 HP motor is needed to supply necessary power to impeller blades.

End result is a costly pump that shears material and needs a heat exchanger installed on the circulating system to function properly.

Stages

Impeller Blade

turbine pump technology1
Typical turbine pumps will use a 10 to 20 HP motor to supply required pressure & flow.

Smart Pumps will require a 1.5 to 5 HP to supply same pressure & flow.

The extra “energy” required for turbine pumps is transferred into the material in the form of heat (30° to 50°). This heat transfer requires Temperature Controls to be used to cool material to an application temperature.

The Temperature Controls may not be required for the Smart Pump as heat transfer is minimal (2° to 5°).

If required in order to maintain material temperature due to changing ambient temperature, the footprint and energy consumption is much lower.

Turbine Pump Technology
overview
Overview

Smart Pump… every Hz equals flow!

Smart BPR… can be automatically energized or de-energized!

End Result…

Smart Circulating System

what is smart circ
What is “SMART CIRC”

Existing circulating technology maintains operating pressure 24 hours a day even though material is not in demand…

SMART CIRC automatically adjusts system pressure and flow to meet the demands at the applicator!

smart circulating system flow chart

Smart Circulating System Flow Chart

A) Material Required:

Signal activates BPR to preset pressure level. Pump is adjusted to “Flow” or “Pressure” mode depending on system demands.

Job Queue Input

  • Data shows material to be “required”.
  • Data shows material is “not required”.

PLC

Smart Circ Controls

B) Material Not Required:

Signal de-activates BPR to fully open 0 pressure level. Pump is adjusted to maintain “Flow” mode at preset levels.

why smart circ
Material integrity.

Pump component wear.

Energy use.

Consistent pressure settings (automated control).

Consistent flow settings (automated control).

Greater process controls.

Why “SMART CIRC”