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Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Policy Challenges for Armenia. Unlocking the Potential for Growth of Green Armenia October 2007. by Dr. Arturo Martinez Chief Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department FAO. Presentation Overview.
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Seed and Plant Genetic Resources PolicyChallenges for Armenia Unlocking the Potential for Growth of Green Armenia October 2007 by Dr. Arturo Martinez Chief Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department FAO
Presentation Overview • FAO projects in Armenia on Seed and PGRFA • Linkage between Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) and Seed Systems • National Seed System • Elements of Seed Policy • Purpose • Technical Elements • Institutional Elements • Regulatory Framework • Regional and International Contexts • The way forward
FAO projects on Seed and PGRFA in Armenia • FAO contributes to the UNEP/GEF funded project “In situ Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives through Enhanced Information Management and Field Application in Armenia, Bolivia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan”. • “Rehabilitation of Seed Potato Production” (searching for financial support) • “Designing an Integrated Strategy to Improve Armenia’s Food Security through Improved Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources”.
Plant Genetic Resources for Food and AgricultureA strong linkage between conservation and utilization
National Seed System Production Commercialization & Distribution Conditioning/Storage NATIONAL SEED SERVICE FARMERS Conditioning/Storage Wider market choice COMMERCIALLY- ORIENTED SEED SUPPLY COMMUNITY BASED SEED SUPPLY Exchange/Market PRIVATE SECTOR Production PGRFA Use Variety Improvement Participatory Plant Breeding PLANT BREEDERS AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Purpose of Seed Policy To integrate both the long-term need to conserve PGRFA and crop biodiversity with the short-term needs for farmers’ access to good quality seed of a wide range of adapted varieties and crops.
Technical Elements Setting of national interests • compulsory certification and/or true-to-label approach • acceptance of landraces in national lists of seed varieties • innovative and/or adaptive national research, participatory plant breeding Definition of standards • Production-conditioning-storage-distribution-marketing • Import and Export • Standards for certification • Requirements for variety release
Institutional Elements • Establishment of institutional arrangements (National Seed Committee, Seed Fund and any other possible arrangement) • Definition of roles of the various actors to avoid unfair competition and maximize efficiency
National Seed System – Regulatory Framework REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IPR/PBR Variety Release COMMERCIALLY- ORIENTED SEED SUPPLY COMMUNITY BASED SEED SUPPLY Quality Assurance Phytosanitary issues Commercialization Environmental issues AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH Import/Export Biosafety
Building blocks for national Seed Policy • Capacity building for technical implementation and legal enforcement • Complementary policies: credit access to farmers • Coordination with other national policies • National associations of private seed producers
Seed Policy at the Regional level • Existence of trading blocks and economic cooperation organizations • Similar climatic and agro ecological conditions and/or Phytosanitary aspects • Existence of effective science and research networks
How to Develop the Process • Identification of national priorities and problems through stakeholders consultation/ field visits • Joint work with national counterparts for elaboration of policy or legal texts • Endorsement of policy or legal text by national stakeholders
New Opportunities • Develop a national strategy for the conservation and sustainable utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in Armenia, • Increase national resources and capacity to implement regulations for the chain from conservation of PGRFA to access to high quality seed by farmers, • Liberalization trends in the seed trade, • New role and collaboration of the private and public sectors through, for example, the establishment of the Armenian Seed Society.
The Way Forward • Enhancing the complementary of seed systems by: 1. Achieving compatibility of national seed regulatory frameworks, 2. Improving implementation of seed rules and regulations. There are various models, and 3. Strengthening technical capacity and institutional linkages.