slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Are Dogs Self-Aware? April Birchfield Randolph College Lynchburg, VA 24503 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Are Dogs Self-Aware? April Birchfield Randolph College Lynchburg, VA 24503

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 1
Download Presentation

Are Dogs Self-Aware? April Birchfield Randolph College Lynchburg, VA 24503 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

coen
87 Views
Download Presentation

Are Dogs Self-Aware? April Birchfield Randolph College Lynchburg, VA 24503

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Are Dogs Self-Aware? April Birchfield Randolph College Lynchburg, VA 24503 Figure 1 • Discussion • Unlike the chimpanzees in Gallup’s (1970) study, dogs do not appear to be self aware. However, it did seem that two of the dogs seemed to stare at the mirror for about 5 to 10 seconds after the mark was placed on their heads. • One possible reason that the dogs avoided the mirror is the belief that the reflection was another dog and dogs do not stare into the face of another dog because it signals aggressive behavior and is intimidating (ASPCA, 2008) . Other reasons could include distraction or poor eyesight. • -Anderson (1984) used multiple mirrors to test self awareness in animals which prevented the animal from being able to avoid viewing itself. This might be helpful for future research. • A larger sample might also be beneficial for further investigation. • Age may also play a role in how well a dog would complete this task. A younger dog in the puppy stage might be more distracted than a more mature dog. • Gallup (1970) exposed chimpanzees to mirrors for ten days. Prolonged exposure to the mirror may be beneficial in helping the dog to adapt to its new surroundings—the mirror. • Crating the dog as Gallup (1970) did may also help to prevent any distraction. Introduction Self-awareness means that an individual is able to observe his or her own behavior (Chance, 2006). Evidence of self-awareness has been found in humans (Asendorpf, Warkentin, & Baudanniere, 1996; Krech & Crutchfield, 1961). Humans observe themselves from other people as well (Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1934). However, research shows that some animals, such as chimpanzees are capable of having qualities of self-awareness (Gallup, 1970, 1979). Gallup (1970) exposed chimpanzees to a mirror and found that they responded to the mirror as if they saw their own reflection. The chimps groomed parts of their body they could not normally see without the mirror. Epstein et al. (1981) also supported evidence of self-awareness in animals by showing that pigeons were able to peck at a mark that was reflected to them in a mirror. The purposed of my study was to see if dogs could also experience self-awareness when viewing their own image in a mirror. Results There was no significant difference in time looked in the mirror with no mark (M = 0.0, SD = 0.0) and time looked in mirror with mark (M = 5.0, SD = 5.0), t(2) = -1.73, p > .05. References Anderson, J. R. (1984). Monkeys with mirrors: Some questions for primate psychology. International Journal of Primatology, 5, 81-98. Asendorpf, J. B., Warkentin, V., & Baudanniere, P. (1996). Self- awareness and other-awareness II: Mirror self recognition, social contingency awareness, and synchronic imitation. Developmental Psychology, 32(2), 313-321. ASPCA. (2008). www. aspca.org. Chance, P. (2006). Learning and behavior: Active learning edition (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Gallup, G. G. (1970). Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition. Science, 167, 86- 87. Gallup, G. G. (1979). Self-awareness in primates. American Scientist, 67, 417-421. Epstein, R., Lanza, R. P., & Skinner, B. F. (1981). “Self-awareness” in the pigeon. Science, 212, 695-696. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kretch, D. & Crutchfield R. S. (1961). Elements of psychology. New York: Knopf. Method Subjects The subjectss were an adult, female long haired Chihuahua (white in color) age 2 years, an adult, male Labrador Retriever/American Boxer (red in color) age 3 years, and a Chihuahua/Jack Russell/Beagle (red and brown in color) about 6 months of age. Materials A 20”x 24” mirror was used to test self awareness. Wilson’s primary Christmas red food coloring was used to apply a mark on the dog’s head to test recognition in the mirror. Procedure The study took place outside at each individual dog’s residence. Each dog was placed in front of the mirror for approximately 90 seconds to provide exposure to the mirror. After the exposure period, a red dot of food coloring was placed on the dog’s head during petting and playing with the dog to prevent the dog from noticing the substance. When the mark was dry, the dog was placed in front of the mirror for approximately 120 seconds. The time the dog spent viewing himself was recorded.